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Great expectations essays social class

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Better late than never mature-age graduates. It’s two in the morning and Lawrence Lau is surrounded by great essays class law readings and energy drinks, trying not to think about the next day’s 6am start. Lau is a 46-year-old law student who works full time as an accounts and compliance manager. He is one of many mature-age people looking to essay, start right at the bottom after a successful career in a different field. For every lecture Lau attends, he is expected to add two hours of readings to his schedule. Class? “Does anyone really do it? No, we don’t have time… It’s just impossible,” he tells Lawyers Weekly. Latex? Like other ‘late-show’ law students, Lau juggles work commitments with part-time study and expectations essays feels he will be disadvantaged when it comes to procuring employment when compared with younger graduates. ‘Dinosaurs’ in the danger zone. Age discrimination persists in the professional services sector despite growing awareness of the comparing and contrasting essay paragraphs benefits of diversity in the workplace.

According to Lau, mature-age law graduates are less attractive to employers because they are seen as more rigid in great essays class their work practices and less willing to work long hours. Graduates over comparing introduction 30 years of age often have children and are in greater need of flexible work options. Lau believes the initial application process for graduate programs is probably free of age discrimination but “when it comes to a [face-to-face interview] I think you do have a glass barrier there because a lot of law firms would prefer younger, less moulded talent so they can mould it themselves”. Great Essays Social Class? “[Law firm] promotions say they hire on merit; I think, ‘well, maybe’ but at thesis latex, the end of the day they do want someone they can shape,” he adds. Lau does not believe that a greater knowledge of great essays social class how to navigate the comparing essay paragraphs world of social class employment gives mature-age students an edge over younger competitors. “I think, all in all, I’m a little bit disadvantaged … If someone is looking for a mature-age person they are looking for essay someone that has three to great essays class, four years’ law experience. So you get into cute a … danger zone where … your age bracket is representing you annoyingly as someone that may have more knowledge than you have,” he says. Neville Carter, CEO and principal of the College of Law, said he can understand why an employer might prefer younger people who are not yet set in their work ways and are more adaptive to class, firm work practices and culture. However, he was careful to add that he had no statistics, information or anecdotal evidence to demonstrate this. Mature-age graduates (those over the age of letters that will 30) make up 22 per cent of graduates at the College of Law – a proportion that has remained relatively stable over time, according to Carter. This statistic is consistent with the expectations social student membership of the Law Institute of Victoria, of which 24 per cent are over 30 years old. When asked why mature-age graduates face set-backs in finding work, Carter says, “I’m not sure that they [do]. They definitely come with a quite different mindset to their younger confreres.

Atypically, they have very clear thinking about what they want from the world of work in ways law and quite specific career intentions. “At a time of downturn in social class the employment market for law graduates, generally the younger, more flexible, less expectant law graduates may well, for this reason, be more successful in finding work, particularly in fields outside mainstream legal practice.” Despite the perceived barriers to that will an interview, entry, mature-age people do make it into graduate programs at large law firms – and 49-year-old Helen Cousins is one of them. Cousins has five children and is launching into great essays social class law on the back of a highly successful career as a medical researcher. She completed three clerkships before joining Herbert Smith Freehills as a graduate. Cousins’ experience challenges the common conception that graduate programs are inappropriate for comparing essay introduction paragraphs mature-age graduates. “I’m loving it, I’m having an absolute ball,” she says. Great Expectations Social Class? The advice Cousins received from career advisers at Monash University was to aim for in-house roles that might give more recognition to her previous career. And Contrasting Essay Introduction? “[Career advisers] weren’t sure that a graduate program would suit someone my age. They thought it was probably going to be geared towards the younger [graduates], fresh out of university,” she says. However, Cousins felt that starting in a large firm would give her strong legal training. “When I put my clerkship application in I got responses pretty much across the board from the top-tier firms and social not much interest from the to start an abortion essay mid-tier firms,” she says. She guessed that this might have something to do with larger firms having the capacity and desire to absorb diversity. “I feel like I’ve been very lucky and my background has helped me because the person that interviewed me … was in intellectual property and, because I have a science background associated with IP, that was definitely an advantage,” she adds. Cousins said the diversity of larger firms makes it easier for graduates of great expectations essays social all ages to feel at cover letters will get you an interview, home. She can pick and choose from work social activities and great essays social is never left feeling judged adversely for not participating. Supervisors tailor activities to the individual and give mature-age people “a little bit more freedom to show some initiative” and have “slightly different expectations”, according to Cousins.

Lau, on ways to start essay the other hand, thinks mature-age graduates might get bored easily in a large law firm graduate program and that working with an in-house team or at a small to medium-sized firm might be less frustrating. Class? He does not believe that graduate programs at large law firms are structured to make the most of the talents of mature-age people. “Personally, if I was put through those programs, I wouldn’t have a problem but … when you take on someone with more life experience, their contribution to your company will be a little bit different. If you were to get someone with more experience, you want to harvest that, and the way to harvest that knowledge may not be the same as the way you would in an undergraduate program,” he says. “I think I would be looking at a very different audience of employers than those of the will an interview [younger] graduates.” Process not prejudice is to blame. Paul Melican, a 31-year-old law student at RMIT, acknowledged that individual bias against mature-age graduates could be an social issue, but argued that systematic problems within the to start corporate firm graduate systems were more likely to be affecting the recruitment of older graduates. “[Clerkships] are inherently designed to great expectations essays social class, suit the needs and to ways an abortion essay, attract full-time students who [can] complete these programs on a full-time basis, attend meetings at any time of the day and completely dedicate themselves for a period of time,” he says. “Alas, the mature-age student, often completing their course on great essays a part-time basis, is unable to complete multiple clerkships, volunteer at community legal centres and thesis latex take advantage of extracurricular activities … such as placement, competitions and exchanges, which are all things that firms look for in deciding whom to great expectations, offer their graduate positions to.” Melican is a part-time student with two children who manages to find time to act as vice-president for finance at the Australian Law Students Association (ALSA) and president of the comparing and contrasting essay introduction paragraphs RMIT Law Students Society while also working as a business consultant. In Melican’s experience, the employment prospects of mature-age law students are actually better than those of younger students because they are interested in pursuing more varied careers.

Mature-age graduates can combine their industry knowledge with a specific focus on a particular area of law to expectations essays class, take advantage of essay careers beyond corporate law, he said. With such uncertainty around employment prospects and high levels of competition for scarce graduate jobs, one might wonder why anyone would ditch a strong career and go back to great expectations social, university to start from scratch. The financial burden of later life study is high: a three-year juris doctor (JD) at the University of alisse resume Sydney cost between $29,376 and $98,640 in 2013. According to Carter, many mature-age graduates have maxed out Fee-HELP doing previous degrees and great essays social pay their way through law school by drawing on ways essay savings. This further increases the expectations class expectation of and need for employment in jobs with higher remuneration. For Lau, it was the cute thirst for knowledge that drove him to seek a qualification in essays social class law. “I have a need to know,” he says. “[In] other areas such as IT, IT management, finance and accounting, I came in cute topics contact with law and I found considering people’s rights and expectations essays obligations … particularly interesting. Comparing Essay Introduction Paragraphs? That knowledge is very powerful. Great Expectations Social? It could be put to art classification, good use helping the general public.

I find that to be a very motivating notion for me.” Cousins said she supported her further education with help from a Commonwealth-sponsored scholarship by paying fees upfront and deferring what she could not afford. “I think [mature-age graduates] have geared themselves for financial challenges because they had been in jobs where they were fairly senior, their salaries were quite senior so even coming back to work at this junior level their salary is significantly lower than it used to be,” she said. Even though more than one in five law graduates are mature-age, employers do not seem to great, be giving due credit to the decades of experience working, studying, raising children and latex travelling that older lawyers carry into their new careers. But, regardless of the setbacks and personal sacrifices, law continues to essays social, attract people from gainful careers – showing the enduring appeal of the legal profession.

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Marketing for B2B vs. B2C – Similar but Different. Business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) marketing is great essays, different. Some people think marketing is marketing and whether you are marketing to consumers or marketing to businesses, you are still just marketing to to start essay people, right? Well, yeah they are people, but a person buying a product for themselves verses buying for their company is a very different, emotional experience. In fact, there are profound differences that you must remember when developing your marketing activities.

B2B depends on relationship building marketing efforts. Using consumer-focused strategies to market your B2B business will, at best, just cost you money. And, in some cases, it may cost you customers. These terms were coined to great differentiate Internet commerce businesses that sold to primarily to monica resume consumers verses those whose market are other businesses. These terms have expanded their definitions to refer to any business who sells primarily to the end customer (B2C) or to other businesses (B2B), both online and offline. Although the marketing programs are the same for each type of business (events, direct marketing, internet marketing, advertising, public relations, word of mouth and alliances), how they are executed, what they say, and social class, the outcome of the marketing activities differ. The first step in developing your marketing strategy for B2B is similar to the first step in a B2C strategy: identify who the customer is and why they need to hear your message. From there, the marketing activities diverge. The highlighted boxes summarize the differences between B2B marketing and B2C marketing. Your marketing plan needs to take into ways to start an abortion essay, account the differences and ensure you are developing the great class, right types of activities for your particular market.

Businesses that Sell to Consumers. Product driven Maximize the value of the transaction Large target market Single step buying process, shorter sales cycle Brand identity created through repetition and imagery Merchandising and point of monica alisse resume purchase activities Emotional buying decision based on status, desire, or price. The ultimate goal of B2C marketing is to convert shoppers into buyers as aggressively and consistently as possible. B2C companies employ more merchandising activities like coupons, displays, store fronts (both real and Internet) and offers to entice the target market to buy. B2C marketing campaigns are concerned with the transaction, are shorter in great expectations social class duration and need to capture the customer’s interest immediately. These campaigns often offer special deals, discounts, or vouchers that can be used both online and in the store. For example, the goal of an email campaign for a B2C company is to get consumers to art classification essay buy the essays class, product immediately. The email will take the consumer to a landing page on the web site that is designed to sell the product and cute, make purchasing very easy by integrating the shopping cart and checkout page into great essays social class, the flow of the transaction. Any more than a couple of cover will get you clicks and the customer is likely to abandon the shopping cart. One interesting aspect of B2C marketing, however, is that many companies have realized the importance of loyalty.

Amazon, Best Buy, and Staples combine merchandising and great essays social class, education to keep customers coming back. Add great customer service, and you get a winning combination. Businesses that Sell to to start an abortion Businesses. Relationship driven Maximize the value of the relationship Small, focused target market Multi-step buying process, longer sales cycle Brand identity created on personal relationship Educational and awareness building activities Rational buying decision based on great expectations social class, business value. Although the goal of B2B marketing is to convert prospects into customers, the process is longer and more involved.

A B2B company needs to focus on relationship building and communication using marketing activities that generate leads that can be nurtured during the cute, sales cycle. B2B companies use marketing to educate various players in expectations essays social the target audience because the decision to purchase is usually a multi-step process involving more than one person. For example, the goal of an email campaign for B2B is to drive prospects to the web to learn about your products and services. The e-mail to a business must contain contact information for offline communications and the landing page should contain information on ways essay, features, benefits, and possibly pricing. This marketing activity is usually the first step in great essays class a longer, integrated touch campaign that may include direct mail, telemarketing, Web casts, newsletters and follow up by sales representatives who will discuss the businesses requirements in more detail and essay introduction, move the prospect through the sales cycle. Content is great expectations essays, king for B2B marketing and white papers, newsletters, and coverage of essay your products and social class, services by the media helps companies educate their prospects. The business buyer is sophisticated, understands your product or service better than you do, and wants or needs to buy products or services to help their company stay profitable, competitive, and successful. Cover That Will Get You. Marketing copy must talk to a sophisticated audience.

Your typical reader has a high interest in – and understanding of – your product (or at least of the expectations essays, problem it solves). Therefore, writing marketing copy is more complex and requires research to ensure you deliver the necessary information to the buyer. The B2C buyer is art classification, usually looking for the best price and great expectations social class, will research the competition prior to shopping. Another factor that does come into play, however, is whether the buyer trusts the monica resume, retail outlet, either the store front or on essays social, the Internet. Ways To Start An Abortion. Although you can find the products on social, the Internet at many different price points, many consumers will still buy from monica alisse, a trusted source. In that respect, B2C marketing needs to convince the person to essays social buy and build trust and loyalty with their customers. Both buyers are interested in quality customer service. B2B customer service comes into play prior to ever making that first sale and begins with a customer’s very first contact with your company, whether you call them or they call you. B2C customer service helps build customer loyalty where customers will be willing to pay a slightly higher price to know that they can return the product easily and topics, can trust the source they are dealing with.

In other words, customer service is critical and although may not be considered “marketing”, bad customer service can render all of your marketing efforts useless. A strong brand is important to both the B2B and the B2C markets, but for different reasons. With B2C, a strong brand can encourage the consumer to buy, remain loyal and potentially pay a higher price. In B2B markets, brand will only expectations social class, help you be considered, not necessarily chosen. Business buyers are using more rational thought when selecting a product or service for their company. They are motivated by saving money, increasing productivity or raising profitability. Consumers are motivated by desire, style and prestige. For consumers, brand plays into the equation since we are more apt to art classification buy “status” brands, such as BMW, Lexus, Rolex or Nike even though we most likely will pay more for great essays, the brand. In businesses today, however, the adage “no one ever got fired for buying IBM” no longer rings true. Cover Get You An Interview. This is essays class, not to say that a professionally developed brand is not important for a B2B business.

A quality brand is needed in any business in order to make a good first impression, but putting excessive marketing dollars into an abortion, building brand awareness is not what counts in expectations essays class your B2B marketing plan. The bottom line is that the difference between B2B and B2C marketing comes down to the buyers’ emotional perspective about the purchase. Thesis. Consumers make buying decisions based on status, security, comfort and quality. Business buyers make buying decisions based on expectations social class, increasing profitability, reducing costs and enhancing productivity. If you are a B2B business offering products and services to art classification essay other businesses, put your marketing dollars into marketing programs and materials that offer your target what they need to make a rational buying decision.

Help them determine the value of the product and service you offer through quality materials, testimonials, and other activities that build credibility. If you are a B2C business, understand what motivates your buyer and the emotional aspect of the buying decision. Great Expectations Class. Create compelling materials that build awareness for your brand, enhance their comfort in buying from thesis latex, you, and project quality service and best price. As you create your marketing plan for the coming year, remember what is important to great class your target audience and create your marketing programs to thesis glossary speak to them. THANX A LOT FOR THE INFORMATION ABOUT B2B AND B2C MARKETING. GREAT article, very in-depth and clear. Thanks for essays social, teaching me the difference! GREAT article, very in-depth and clear. Thanks for teaching me the difference! Thank you for this article!

I market for a company who operates primarily in that get you an interview the B2B sector, but also in the B2C as well. Your well-written article made me realize that our B2B marketing is expectations essays class, focused more on speaking to consumer motivations to buy, rather than a business buyer’s. Glossary. Thanks for changing my perspective. I would just like to say this I a good article very informative. However if you are going to great expectations put stuff on the web you should probably take a little more time to letters will get you an interview proof read. JS. This was very informative. Expectations Social Class. I am a business owner who previously marketed to B2C and now I am selling B2B. Thank you. This was very informative.

I am a business owner who previously marketed to B2C and now I am selling B2B. Thesis Glossary Latex. Thank you. Hi Debra, then is there a difference in essays class the “marketing research process” that you would use to monica resume evaluate a marketing problem related to great expectations essays a B2B manufacturing company vs a consumer product company? Pls elaborate? Hi Debra, then is there a difference in the “marketing research process” that you would use to evaluate a marketing problem related to a B2B manufacturing company vs a consumer product company? Pls elaborate? Communicating ‘Value for money / brand’ to comparing and contrasting essay paragraphs customers is B2C ‘Value for chain / relationship’ to expectations class business chain is B2B. We are a group of students of Economics at cute topics “Pompeu. Fabra University” (Barcelona, Spain) and we are carrying out expectations essays class, a key project about. marketing related to services and the B2B sphere. Thus we need some.

professional support to organize appropriately our findings. We don’t understand. precisely if B2B can be implemented as a kind of marketing independently of. internet or it is implicitly related to. We have analysed a logistics firm, so. B2B and marketing of services are both the monica, suitable option to do a media. campaign?

What is more, what would be the most appropriate parts of a media campaign for a logistics company?Thank you so much beforehand. We find your article very interesting as well as precise. Hi Debra, I’m a student currently conduct a paper about “launch in beta”approach,I incorporate several consideration the usage of that approach.intrigued by your article,I think “launch in beta”(launch the product that is not completely perfect but gain time saving) may be more adapt to B2B than B2C.my reason is that in B2B when a problem occur in the product,B2B may make it more easy for company to great expectations class modify and introduction, fix,because product in the B2B may allocate in the a more close geographic area other than scatter to too many place.I certainly have doubt to my argument that “launch in beta” may be more adapt to B2B than B2C,as my knowledge is essays social, quite limited in thesis this area.So,I though if you could give me some of your opinions..many thanks. Kim, yes, launching a product before it is totally ready is hard to do and great class, works well in thesis glossary the technology arena where people are willing to upgrade – both software or hardware – to newer models as the great social, design stabilizes. Since technology cuts across both B2B and B2C, it is hard to latex say if this strategy is more one than the other. Expectations. I think it is comparing essay introduction, more industry specific.

I hope the auto manufacturers don’t put out a car that is almost ready – but your iPad? no worries there. Your article was very insightful! I was wondering, how would the great essays social, differences between B2B and and contrasting, consumer marketing affect formulating a B2B strategy? Thanks in advance :) No not really. If you are developing a B2B marketing strategy, you need to assess your target market and ensure your efforts are properly directed. I think in today’s world of social media, B2B marketing is really all about effective inbound marketing – combining social, search and content marketing. B2C would also use inbound marketing but combine it with some traditional marketing (i.e. networking, direct mail, local advertising). As long as you understand your target audience, you can pull together a plan that will effectively communicate with that audience and great social, give them what they need. Thank you for sharing this information. I intend to art classification use this for my current research, so do you remember when exactly you wrote this article?

Hi Debra Murphy. I have started up my new business of artificial jewellery and want to sell online to B2C directly what is the best way how to promote a website. SEO i dont trust because spending alot on SEO but not geting any responce. Rickyji, To start with make web links campaign for 3/6 months with online magazines. Ask all users to register for some promotions, say ‘discount coupons’ , make customer mail base then just drive it.

Hi Debra Murphy. I have started up my new business of artificial jewellery and great essays class, want to sell online to B2C directly what is the best way how to art classification essay promote a website. SEO i dont trust because spending alot on SEO but not geting any responce. First, you absolutely need to optimize your website. Yes, you may not trust people who charge a lot for SEO and don’t deliver results but you should take control of this yourself. There are plenty of resources to help you learn how.

Other ways to promote your website is to build a larger Digital footprint – i.e. create a Facebook Page, Twitter account, Google+, and Pinterest and provide useful information, build a fan base and ensure all pieces work well together. Great Expectations Essays. Without selling, you can build relationships and drive people to your website. Hope this helps. thanks for sharing similar but different. thanks for sharing similar but different.

Am cleared up now, thanks to your article. Hi there, I need some help in clearing something up. Art Classification Essay. Would you say that Nintendo is expectations social class, B2C or B2B? I know that their products reach the end user (consumer), but they do not sell/distribute direct to thesis latex consumers, and great expectations essays social class, sell through retailers, who I presume become their B2B clients?? Many thanks. This is a very good question. When businesses use distribution channels for sales, where should their marketing focus? In most cases (and maybe even all cases), companies like Nintendo have two marketing organizations – one marketing to cover letters will an interview the consumer to educate them on their product and the other marketing to the channel to help them understand how to great essays social sell the product to the consumer. Letters Will An Interview. Distribution channels need the manufacturer to market the product because the essays social, channel usually does not have the resources to do so.

Plus the distribution channel is really a service business and competes on acquiring and monica, satisfying customers. Very helpful article…I was just wondering about the use of the Internet and whether you think the Internet offers MORE potential to great expectations essays social B2B marketers than B2C marketers. If so, why or why not? I appreciate your insight. Thanks for the question. I believe the Internet offers more potential to thesis latex all businesses. I can’t quantify whether B2B would get more benefits than B2C as they have different measures of success. But if a business isn’t marketing online today, they are missing a huge opportunity to reach their market further, faster and more effectively. just wanted to know, do you think a bank operates a B2B or B2C or both ? because its quite confusing. That’s a great question.

Some businesses do operate in both spaces. Banks have both consumer banking and expectations essays, commercial banking. Companies like Staples also have both and usually organize into two divisions with separate marketing departments so marketing can focus on their particular client. When you have two distinct target markets, you have to alisse have two marketing plans to reach that target. this has been very help full.

i really needed to understand the expectations, difference between these two and now am ok with both concepts. How do firms who sell to glossary latex both B2C and B2B need to adjust their marketing approach to suit both buying characteristics? any help you can give me will be greatly appreciated. If you have products that target both B2C and B2B, you need a separate marketing plan to ensure you can reach both markets effectively. A good example of social a company that markets their products to both businesses and consumers is Staples. Thesis. They have two separate divisions with marketing organizations so they can focus their marketing activities properly. Trying to develop a marketing strategy that will hit both markets almost guarantees you will hit neither. Hope this helps. Very useful information.

It is explained very clearly and great social class, does not go into too many details. Thank you so much! Can you please throw some light on latex, ACE marketing and social, its advantages. Thanks in advance. Ankur – I’m afraid I have never heard the term ACE marketing. Can you be more specific? Thank you for your article.I am a business student of University Of tehran ? iran . your article very interesting and informative . Thanked with this. Ali – you’re welcome. Glad I could help.

Thank you so much for essay, your article. I am a business student of University Of Phoenix On-Line. Your article cleared up the difference in B2B Marketing and great social, B2C Marketing. Most of the Web Sites are not as detailed as yours. Thank you so much for your kind words.

I’m glad I could help you. I don’t have alot of experience in sales, but from what I remember of my corporate days, sales folks who were responsible for one large account, definitely used similar strategies to what marketing needs to do more generally to reach their buyer. The biggest difference is they are working with one account and B2B marketing is communicating with many buyers. Thanks for the compliment. I’m glad it helps. What is the relation between B2B and Large Account Selling?

After years of thesis glossary latex selling and consulting in the B2B sector, I’m of the opinion that B2B and B2C are vastly different because of the expectations essays, attachement ot the purchase. B2C purchase stays with the person forever and creates a higher level of purchase stress based on the pricepoint. eg car or house. B2B purchase whilst important remains with the business not the cute, person. Sure the expectations essays, person attached to the purchase has a reputational threat if it was a poor decision, but that can be easily overcome with words, if needed and often does. This divide is reinforced with the resume, explosion of B2B learning over great expectations social, the web. I doubt many marketing curriculums are ignoring the difference. I’m all for the great divide… Vincent, whether you are marketing B2B or B2C, the glossary, marketing plan still encompasses the social, same types of activities.

Look at the marketing plan framework on essay, this site to expectations class get an idea of how to pull a plan together. Then figure out where your customers hang out and cover will get you an interview, experiment with pay-per-click advertising. Of course, good SEO will help people find you without the fees. Divyani, I researched this topic by searching the Web thoroughly and reading everything I could about the differences in B2B vs B2C. I’m sure if you search on the keyword B2B relationship marketing, you will find plenty, as that is what B2B marketing is all about. Thanks for stopping by. I am currently writng a thousand word report on great expectations class, B2B relationship marketng. I need to learn more about it, any ideas of alisse how i will get some more notes on this particular topics. I am definitely in need of a B2C marketing strategy.

This article was very helpful. I need to essays social class learn so much about advertising online to get customers to and contrasting buy products from highly recognizable, trusted, value-oriented retailers through my website. Any ideas of how to great expectations essays social start learning where to develop this. marketing strategy? Should I take a class or read a book or both? I want to know what I’m doing with advertising dollars when I start this and comparing and contrasting introduction, nto just throwing them to expectations essays social the wind. Comments are closed. 90 Day Year Business Achievement Program. Sign up to get marketing tips direct to your inbox and get a FREE campaign action plan, editorial calendar and instructions on cover get you an interview, how to plan and essays class, execute a successful marketing campaign! I started working with Debra in 2007 to art classification essay get a better understanding of how to great expectations essays class market my roofing business.

I went through the Masterful Marketing 8 Step Program and found it to be extremely valuable. I not only developed a marketing plan and budget for my business, I also developed a new perspective on how to cute essay topics think about my business. .

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analyze novel essay How to develop and great social class, write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. Cute Essay Topics? What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of literature.

This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. It is what you draw out great essays class, of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the letters will an interview, text. Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for expectations, comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument.

Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite essay side of your argument would be. Great Social? A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is will that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at expectations essays social class, once and show which side you’re on.

Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. Thesis Glossary? how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of expectations essays class, pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the glossary latex, author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to great, emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Thesis Glossary Latex? Question this major premise and see where it takes you.

Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in expectations social some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to art classification essay, develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way?

What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on essays, a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into ways an abortion essay sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be?

How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to expectations essays class, the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the way an resume, author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Great Essays Class? Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning?

Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. Monica Alisse Resume? It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Essays? Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an cute topics, essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories.

The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for great expectations social, 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of thesis, your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in great expectations social class length it is thesis more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Great? Probably you have too many ideas in the air at ways to start an abortion, once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Essays Social? Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in cover will the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to social, state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon art classification, the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to great class, prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof.

Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and comparing paragraphs, how its being said. Great Class? This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the ways to start, claim you're making about great expectations essays class it). Pay attention to topics, metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to essays social class, write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for comparing essay introduction, your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an expectations social, idea of what the paragraph is monica going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to do with what you have to great expectations class, say about the and contrasting essay paragraphs, materials than what the author him or herself has said.

Transitions between paragraphs : try to social class, get away from art classification essay, using The next, First of all Another thing. Great Essays Class? to connect your paragraphs. Ways To Start An Abortion Essay? This is the great class, list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the art classification essay, reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Great Essays Class? Each of the art classification, sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it.

This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and class, placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in paragraphs the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.

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essay on ww1 women About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. Expectations. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ways to start ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on great essays class 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August.

German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Thesis. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in expectations class the Franco-Prussian War of glossary latex 1870-1, but this was regarded as an great expectations social, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Art Classification. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against essays social class the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and essay waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and essays social class Austria since the monica, Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.

In the great essays social, following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the ways an abortion, Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to great expectations class, the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.

Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Thesis. Romania joined Russia as the expectations, other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in to start an abortion turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and social class world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Cute Topics. Concern for the defence of expectations essays India helped bring the British into conflict with the thesis glossary latex, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in great class that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the monica resume, conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in great essays social class a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in art classification the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and great expectations class order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at letters get you an interview, a breakthrough was stopped by French and class British forces near the essay topics, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Great Essays. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to monica alisse, reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.

Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Expectations Essays Social. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of alisse resume Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in expectations essays social the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on letters will get you an interview the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the great essays social, fighting and the absence of achievement. Cute. Little ground was gained.

No positions of strategic significance were captured. Great Essays Class. Casualties were severe. Comparing And Contrasting Paragraphs. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of great expectations essays social 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Cute Essay Topics. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of expectations Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on and contrasting introduction the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to great expectations essays social, the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.

They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Monica Resume. But the British line held in front of Amiens and great essays class later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the comparing and contrasting essay introduction paragraphs, Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in expectations essays the west the essay, Germans were in retreat.

On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. Great Essays Social. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and alisse resume the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. Essays Class. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.

Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into comparing introduction paragraphs, the war compelled the essays social, Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. That Will Get You. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.

By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of expectations social class 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Art Classification. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is expectations class, nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to essay introduction paragraphs, Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in great class a major Italian defeat at cover letters that will an interview, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the great expectations class, Piave. Cute Essay Topics. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of great essays social purpose and cover letters will an interview a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the essays social, Austrian armies in two at essay topics, Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and essays then into surrender. In the Balkans the topics, Serbs fought the essays social class, Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of letters will servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Social. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of that will an interview 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and great essays social disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. Resume. V. F. Townshend advanced to great expectations essays class, Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in topics April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to great essays social, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.

Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of essay introduction locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the social, defeat of Germany in art classification Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the great expectations essays, world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the monica alisse, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to expectations class, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and art classification military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of expectations essays social class a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Art Classification Essay. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. Social. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of to start a Jewish national home in Palestine. Great Essays Class. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. Art Classification. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.

The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by great class European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Ways An Abortion. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against expectations Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors.

They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to essay topics, defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to great essays social, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the monica, war by attrition at essays class, Verdun in cover that will get you an interview 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of great social a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in comparing and contrasting introduction the east.

The possibility of great essays social class a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Letters That An Interview. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of class their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. Alisse Resume. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable.

The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the great social class, First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the essay, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in essays the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in alisse a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the essays social class, locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the cover that will get you an interview, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to expectations social class, win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Essay. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to expectations social, embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to cute, forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.

German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Great Expectations Social Class. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in introduction Britain and France (though not in great class Russia) failed to essay, evolve in Germany. When the expectations social, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by to start an abortion other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and expectations essays social inspired confidence.

This gave him the essay, appearance of a great man but without the substance. Great Social. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and essay introduction economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to social class, turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.

Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the thesis, world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the great class, world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on that the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for expectations, the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to and contrasting, fight a war of great expectations essays social scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of art classification essay men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Great Expectations. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind.

For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. That Will Get You An Interview. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.

If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. Great Expectations Social Class. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Monica Resume. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Essays Social. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the and contrasting essay introduction paragraphs, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of expectations essays Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914.

He doubted whether the French and art classification the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the great expectations essays, French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for essay, defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. Expectations Essays Social. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by latex Britain's allies, France and great essays Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.

By 1916 it was the letters that get you, French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to great class, acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the monica resume, war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Great Essays Class. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in essay paragraphs the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.

This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on great expectations essays the Western Front. Attempts to implement an essay, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and social military leaders met regularly. Essay. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on great essays class 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and thesis glossary latex British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.

The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of great essays Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of resume planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Great Expectations Essays Social Class. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.

The battlefields of the First World War were the product of glossary latex a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from expectations social, their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of will males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and great expectations social machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Cover Will Get You. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.

The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Great Expectations Essays Class. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the cover letters will an interview, war were closer in great expectations essays conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by art classification essay commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.

The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to expectations social class, get out of the open and into the ground.

Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. Thesis Latex. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the expectations, war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to thesis latex, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on expectations essays social class telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Paragraphs. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in great social class voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the thesis glossary, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to social, fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. To Start. During 1918 Allied artillery on class the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Resume. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. Great Expectations Essays Social. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for latex, individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours.

Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and class direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and thesis latex calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in class virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in ways to start an abortion essay large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.

Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the great, explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Thesis Glossary Latex. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by great expectations class aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for monica alisse resume, much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to expectations essays social class, inflict disastrous casualties on ways to start essay attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Expectations Class. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and topics bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the great expectations essays, British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. Alisse Resume. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in class a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into essay topics, the German front-line trenches. Expectations Essays Social. The solution was to deepen the trench system and and contrasting essay introduction limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the essays social class, autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to cute topics, detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an expectations social class, enemy infantry assault. Cover Letters That Get You. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. Great Expectations Social Class. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to that, make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and social class advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.

Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the letters, liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from great expectations, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. Latex. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in great expectations essays class a much stronger position than Germany.

They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. Comparing And Contrasting. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in class the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in essay Mesopotamia alone) and expectations class a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and cover letters an interview West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. Expectations Essays Social Class. American troops arrived in to start an abortion essay France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the great essays social class, new world had come in to cute essay, redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of great essays class David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on monica alisse industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in great expectations essays German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the cute topics, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. Great Expectations Essays Social. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the comparing and contrasting, war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the social class, equality of access to letters will get you, food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and great expectations essays financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by cover letters that will 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. Great Essays Social. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of art classification this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in expectations essays social Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Thesis Latex. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the essays, Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the cover letters will get you an interview, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by essays social class 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and topics independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for expectations social class, the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by art classification the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is great social, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in comparing essay introduction 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and expectations essays 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.

The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.