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Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. Research Papers Resolution? In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in essays topics 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the research on conflict direction of the work sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies.
The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. Research Papers On Conflict? Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of essays most language tests. Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to write essays 1 according to a set of instructions. Then the essays are scored by human raters based on established rating scales.
In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of resolution stable and uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. About Language? Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in a sequence of research papers on conflict resolution responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). Even if the rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and validity of the rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the homework rating activities (Overall and research papers resolution Magee, 1992). Because of variations in both the characteristics and status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.
These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on both the reliability and validity of the pyramids resulting scores. Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and restriction of range. While these four types of rater effects have attracted the most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and research on conflict Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. Essay? In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of research papers on conflict resolution responses in a certain sequence. Homework? It is likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by their quality. Sequential effects are said to be present if the score of an essay is affected by previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. On the research papers resolution one hand, previous responses of homework lower quality can make the current response appear better, and on conflict vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to how to legal essay the quality of the research on conflict resolution previous responses.
This phenomenon is known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to woman give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in Psychophysics and Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and social judgments were the first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Most studies in these areas revealed the existence of research on conflict resolution contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of how essays are rated.
In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in sequence behind good and pmi term papers poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. The results showed that the essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of essays of research papers on conflict moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. Pmi Term Papers? The arrangements in research these studies were very similar to those conducted in psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and untrained, and a limited number of ratings were made. When it came to pyramids the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and automatic or semi-automatic, with the result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to research on conflict resolution rate essays toward the same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the process of performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. Resources? In a study conducted by on conflict Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the partial correlation between scores of pmi term papers present and previous athletes was 0.31.
In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for present ones, and vice versa, indicating the existence of research papers assimilation effects. In that study, the about appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the order was not random. Existing Methods for on conflict, Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in ratings. In an experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.
The statistical method used in this approach was an descriptive essays topics, analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and papers resolution Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is not feasible to homework conduct studies in experimental settings. Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and scores made previously by the same raters. A significant positive correlation would indicate the existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). On Conflict? However, the drawback for use of the essays about correlation method is that it is unable to examine the joint influence of multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.
During the rating process of most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the resolution independence requirement for correlation coefficient estimation. If the pmi term papers data structure is not taken into papers account, the resulting standard errors of the parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and essays Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to on conflict be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Essay On Ancient Pyramids? Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and research resolution Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to handle such structures.
In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to studies essay the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of papers on conflict resolution sequential effects can prove useful for revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for research in this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the significance of investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and nature of the studies data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in research papers on conflict resolution essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of this research was to explore sequential effects in essay ratings in large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. The operational data used in write essay this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of previous scores on research papers on conflict, subsequent scores positive or negative?
(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for egypt pyramids, handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the research results. The paper closes with our conclusions and suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.
If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and essay raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. In Figure 1, the units of different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of different levels is represented by arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. On Conflict? For example, students may be nested within classes, and classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to how to legal essay a particular primary school and secondary school.
In this case, the classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is common. As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and raters. Each score, the papers resolution lower level unit, is simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and essays language Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for the essay ratings to account for papers on conflict resolution, the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the vector of slope parameters. The random part of the model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for work, the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). Research Papers Resolution? As the structure of the model grows more complex, the random part can be composed of pmi term papers more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and research papers resolution intercept. Moreover, the resources variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to some extent. Methods for Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and Bayesian methods can be used.
Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and then used an iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and research papers Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and Nelder, 2000). However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for work essay, cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the papers on conflict resolution MCMC method can produce estimates of essays language all the posterior distributions of the research unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).
When estimating models with the MCMC algorithm, the deviance information criterion (DIC) is recommended for model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to essays compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of research papers resolution one writing item that was part of an English test administered in a province of China. Essays? The English test was one of on conflict four subjects in descriptive topics a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. A student#x2019;s total raw score on on conflict resolution, the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. Woman Work Essay? The writing section of the English test was designed to measure the papers resolution comprehensive language competence of high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of language two items. Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. This item provided a series of pictures describing an event, based on research resolution, which students were instructed to write an essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in accordance with the woman Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.
The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and research papers each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by resources the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the research papers test. All raters involved were recruited by how to write the organization, and were highly qualified. Papers? The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and essays district level rating experience. Research? There were 88 raters in the rater group. To ensure the effective administration of the ratings, the essays language raters were divided into seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. In allocating raters to teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into account to ensure the on conflict homogeneity of the teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. Essay Pyramids? The start time and end time of research papers on conflict each rating were recorded in addition to the rating itself.
The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. The rating rubric divided the 20 points allotted to the writing item into five classes. Scores in the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and descriptive essays constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the two scores served as the papers resolution final score. However, if the difference between the two scores given by the original raters was equal to how to a good or greater than four points 2 , the essay would be scored a third time by another rater chosen at random.
When an essay was rated three times, the final recorded score was the average of the two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for papers on conflict, the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of 20 points. In the essays present rating process, 17% of the essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of papers on conflict resolution all scores were contributed by a third rater.
In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in write a good legal studies essay the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by two raters, and research papers resolution 11,727 essays were scored by three raters. On Ancient Egypt Pyramids? Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to take the complex hierarchical structure of the research data into account. In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and pmi term papers non-independence of multiple ratings for the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and the proportion of high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of sequential effects. Research? The descriptions of all variables included in woman the analysis are detailed in Table 1. Research Papers Resolution? To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on descriptive essays, which Model 2 was built and compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on the rating sequence.
Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the research papers on conflict resolution rating process, and on ancient whether the possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and highpro_9 . The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. Papers On Conflict? The variable writing stood for raw scores given on language, the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of research papers on conflict high scores (i.e., scores in the range of 16 to 20 points) in the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the same raters. This variable was added to Model 2 to work essay clarify the existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for sequential effects was inspired by research resolution the research of Attali (2011), in which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and the work of Ramineni (2008), in a good which the proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.
First, the proportions of high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to the model. Second, the adoption conformed to the nature of the rating process. During the present rating process, all raters were asked to follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an essay, allocate it to one of five classes, and calibrate a final score within the class. During the intensive and exhausting rating process, it was easier for raters to have an overall impression of the research papers on conflict resolution several previous scores they gave. Finally, in a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. Pmi Term Papers? As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.
The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the research on conflict existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the proportion of high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the present scores. In other words, a positive slope for highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of descriptive high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the papers on conflict presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the presence of language contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of highpro_9 was allowed to papers on conflict resolution vary across raters in order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to work essay sequential effects. Research Papers? If the credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in egypt pyramids sequential effects expressed by the association between the research papers on conflict proportions of high scores and the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the number of times the rater had participated in rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of topics severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. On Conflict Resolution? The last variable was trirate , and operationalized as the proportion of essays rated by a third rater out of all the essays marked by a specific rater.
In addition to considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in this study were estimated using the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for topics, the variance parameters. Research Papers On Conflict Resolution? Both the essays language burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Convergence was monitored and explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and papers the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for homework, each model was presented and used to compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the papers on conflict resolution between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the work essay influence of research papers on conflict resolution essays themselves.
The former accounted for only 1.6% of the total variance, while the latter accounted for how to legal essay, 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for research papers, the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on the rating sequence, and essays language that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in research resolution model fit. Woman Work? As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. This finding meant that higher proportions of high scores in on conflict resolution the previous nine essays were associated with an pmi term papers, increased score on the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of assimilation effects. Specifically, if an essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.
On the whole scale of the present essay item, the estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for research resolution, 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for essays about, nearly half of the papers on conflict total cases. Hence, comparing the more common setting of on ancient egypt four previous high scores to the case of one previous high score, the score of the target essay was expected to on conflict resolution be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of pyramids one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the rating process. However, we also needed to consider whether the raters differed in the demonstrated effects. To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and Model 3 was developed. The fit of Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.
The slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only on conflict, were sequential effects present in work terms of assimilation effects, but the strength of research resolution these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. To facilitate the interpretation of the results from woman essay, Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and papers on conflict resolution plotted in woman work essay Figure 2. Papers? In the figure, the slopes were ranked and plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in Figure 2, the results suggested that the woman work slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for papers resolution, the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on Sequential Effects. During the essays rating process, information about the raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of times a rater had served as a rater on similar tasks.
The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by a third rater, and the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the on conflict resolution other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of each rater. In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on the estimated sequential effects, the essays about main effect term of the research resolution three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 . All slopes of the newly added terms were set to be fixed. The results are given in how to a good studies essay Table 3. Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Compared to research on conflict Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by 48.3%. Hence, the inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the individual differences of sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and model 4.
As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the new variables were included in the model. Essay On Ancient Egypt? Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an papers, influence on the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by homework 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of experience did not differ in papers on conflict terms of egypt severity or leniency, the raters did differ in research papers resolution their inclination to give scores that were influenced by previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the raters were, the higher the scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by one point was associated with a decrease in the slope of highpro_9 by 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the difference between the most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in the slope of highpro_9 of 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to giving lower scores.
In addition, trirate had a positive influence on the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to sequential effects. When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and how to write a good legal 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of highpro_9 increased by 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Papers On Conflict? Cross-classified models can take into account the complex structure of the data in large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in essays our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the papers essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in essays situations when perceived similarities existed between target and reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to papers compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the above three situations.
The essays being scored possessed the same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to discriminate between essays of different quality. All raters had direct experience and studies were skilled in scoring essays. On Conflict? Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of experience differed from work essay, each other. Rating experience is a domain-specific experience that has an influence on both the long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). Papers? That experience had a negative influence on assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and could conform to the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects, which was not in line with the resources observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. The finding that there was a high proportion of high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in the model to represent the degree of consistency of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.
This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Research Papers Resolution? Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the more experienced, lenient, and homework qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. These results had the on conflict resolution following implications for the rating practice of educational examinations. First, experience should serve as one criterion for homework, the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.
Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and research resolution also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the effects. For example, extending the intervals between essays or lowering the workload of raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the descriptive rubric properly. In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.
Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the reliability and validity of examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and adjust the resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the on conflict resolution subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an essays, obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the research papers rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and pmi term papers cross-classified models are a feasible solution.
In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to apply when the data have this type of structure. An advantage of multilevel modeling is that predictors of various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. In addition, the fluctuation of rater effects over time can also be modeled by choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in China. The scores given by raters to an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of research on conflict high scores among the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the predictor of sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures.
While this research contributed information about rater performance that can be applied to improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the pmi term papers present study, the proportion of high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in research our models partly because of the limited capacity of the study. How To Write Legal Studies Essay? Another limitation of the present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.
Times of rating similar tasks could provide only one aspect of rating experience. Research? The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of rating quality. Finally, the on ancient egypt pyramids present study was based on research papers resolution, data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. Future research might be designed and conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to ascertain the net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and woman essay intellectual contribution to the work, and papers approved it for publication. The manuscript is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of resources homework China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of on conflict resolution Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for Testing and Evaluation, Israel.
Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and descriptive Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in papers on conflict other forums is essays, permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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Project B: Lloyds Bank - Imaging and essays topics Workflow Automation. • Responsible for enhancing/ maintenance of database and only point of papers contact for Filenet/J2EE team. • Responsible for homework design and enhancement of data model. • Developed Procedures/Functions/Triggers/DDL scripts. • Also involved in defect fixing/analysis of root cause of research defects during UAT phase. • Involved in code reviews and code designs. • Responsible for Knowledge Transfers and grooming of team members. • Skills and Tools: Oracle SQL/PLSQL-11g, Oracle Enterprise Manager, Informatica. Acclaris Business Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Pmi Term Papers? - Kolkata , India. Papers On Conflict Resolution? Project A: Crosby Benefit Systems, Fidelity –Platform Upgradation. Duration: Nov-2009 to Sep-2010. • Was deputed twice to Tampa, Florida U.S.A. Essay? (B1 Visa): Nov-2009 to Jan-2009 and on conflict July-2009 to Jan-2010 for Business Meetings. • Gathered requirements for upgrading platform for existing client Fidelity and new client Crosby. • Developed reports in PLSQL which would fetch data from essays topics different environments and generate a common report for client to view net claims reimbursed by research papers on conflict resolution different employer groups. • Developed programs to automatically substantiate claims when participants swiped their debit cards. • Also involved to helping team members in knowledge transfers and technical help. • Involved in code reviews and code designs. On Ancient Egypt? • Promoted to Sr. Research On Conflict? Software engineer from software engineer based on my performance. Skills and Tools: Oracle SQL/PLSQL-11g, PL/SQL developer and WSFTP-Pro. Project B: Bank of America Benefit Solutions –End to end Implementation. Duration: Mar-2009 to Nov-2009.
Bank of America decided to work essay, change their vendor for claims processing for various Health plans like HSA, FSA, DEPFSA, HRA, DCRA etc to Acclaris. • Was involved in research papers resolution Fileloads containing participant enrollment information in standard 834 format. • Completely developed deposit fileload's which was to process participant deposit information (coming from vendors in descriptive topics various formats like CDHP, Excel etc according to complex business logic and load it in the database, enabling participants to view their account balance through portal (developed in Java). • Received my Manager's appreciation for defect free program processing when demoed in onsite with client and my company IT- Vice president. • Was involved in papers resolution post- production support and provided support to day to day problems, queries raised by client to Operations department. • Also responsible for woman work working on new change request and papers on conflict bug fixes. Skills and Tools used: Oracle SQL/ PLSQL-11G, WFTP-Pro, EDI tool for mapping standard EDI data format to staging tables. Resources? Project C: ATT Tuition Plan –End to End Implementation. Research Papers Resolution? Duration: Aug-2008 to Feb-2009. (New Project Implementation Support). • Was involved in requirements gathering for implementing 12 tuition plans. Depending on the participant enrollment, the online portal enabled participants to submit applications to reimburse their tuition fees online after the receipts were validated by Acclaris Operations Team. The online claim reimbursement decreased company's dependence on Operations resource thereby improving efficiency and cost. How To Write Legal Studies Essay? • Coding, unit-testing, database design, implementation of code design and papers approach. • Coordinating with QA team to essay egypt pyramids, ensure code quality prior to production release. • Single handedly provided production support activities. (Have complete end to end knowledge of Design, code impact changes and business requirements). • Presently involved in grooming new production support team which does data fix and immediate fixes based on SLA. • Presently involved in scoping various development activities, coding, unit-testing. • Technology and Tools Involved: Oracle-11g, PLSQL developer, Front-end application (developed by research papers resolution Java team). Infosys Technologies Pvt.
Ltd. - Bangalore , India. Client: Fidelity Investments. Project A: STORE: Sybase to Oracle Re-Engineering- Benchmark. Location: Fidelity Client Office, Bangalore India. Duration: Nov-2007 to Aug-2008. • As part of STORE (Sybase to Oracle Re-Engineering) initiative, Fixed Income (FIMT- Comprising of debt and bonds) decided to write a good, migrate all the Vendor data feed systems, which are more data centric and less dependent on applications, from Sybase to Oracle. This involved migrating all vendor feeds databases (presently six) to one schema and one database. • Got an appreciation mail from client commending my defect less code and for learning new technologies within very short span of time. • Preparation of pearl scripts to load vendor data from vendor databases to destination folders. • Developing mappings, mapplets, workflows and sessions in informatica for loading vendor data from Sybase to destination tables in oracle after validation and transformation. • Writing SQL queries, joins, PLSQL procedures, Functions, Triggers to extract data from research multiple sources before inserting into target tables. Pmi Term Papers? • Preparation of autosys jobs to automate the process and scheduling batch jobs running at specific periods. Papers? • Coding and self testing of application in various environments, defect tracking and code reviews. • Attending KT sessions and client conferences to understand requirements and business. • Skills Used: SQL, PLSQL, UNIX, Informatica8.1 (Developing Mapplets, Mapping, Creating Workflow and session for data flow. Creating scripts.), Autosys (For job preparation), job scheduling, and database tool- Rapid SQL and IBM Rational Clearcase8.1 for version maintenance. Project B: AI and essays Reporting.
Duration: Feb2007 to Nov2007. • Was a part of on conflict resolution Production Development Team responsible for write a good studies essay designing procedures, packages, triggers and other database object, which would interact with the database in order to retrieve participant's assets, and holdings, which would then be passed on to the research papers on conflict resolution, front end (Informatica) to be viewed by about language the end user. AI is the main module, which included creating customer accounts, and adding transaction details while Reporting, which is the sub module, included generating reports of investment details for each participant. • Single handedly managed the reporting module and working with the AI team in development. • Coding in SQL/PLSQL on papers TOAD tool along with rigorous self-testing as the code was deployed in various test environments before finally being deployed in essay pyramids production database. • Was also the backup Project Leader and research have ensured that our deliverables meet the homework, standards with frequent Code Reviews, Defect • • • Tracking and Effort Estimation being done. Skills used: Oracle-9i, SQL and PL/SQL (Development of Procedures, • • Functions, Packages, Triggers, Sequences, Views.), Database Tool Toad (For development and Testing), Microsoft VSS for clearcasing. Project C: Actuarial Application Corporate Actions. Duration: May2006 to Jan2007. • Was a part of the development team, involved in preparing requirement documents based on research papers on conflict client needs, developing and testing Workbooks which are Excel applications supported by VB and fetching data from the database enabling a participant to view their retirement benefits (Defined Benefits) based on complex calculations as proposed by the clients of Fidelity (like- VNU, NCR, RHD). • Preparation of woman essay requirement document according to client needs. • Coding, self-testing and running Regression Testing to prevent breaking of code. • Involved in Defect Prevention meetings and KT (Knowledge Transfer) sessions held regularly in papers resolution order to maintain the Infosys quality standards before production delivery. How To Write A Good Legal? • Skills used: MS- Excel, VB6.0, Regression Tool, SQL, PLSQL, Unix. This is research resolution, a four year degree course and achieved a First Class With Distinction with 73.2% across all semesters. Standard 12th with an overall - 76%. Essay Pyramids? With an overall - 70.2%. On Conflict Resolution? Back-End Developer, DevOps@4Patriots, LLC.
Technical Specialist@Goodyear Tire and Rubber. IT Consultant - Programmer/Analyst@Structured Programming Technology LLC. Director of Operations@City Wide Maintenance of St. Louis. Junior Developer@Campus Web Solutions.
Senior Software Engineer@Send Word Now Inc. Featured Jobs in Tampa:View More Tampa Jobs. Get job alerts sent to your inbox for. Software Engineer Senior Software Engineer Module Lead. Sri Siddhartha Institute of Technology The Frank Anthony Public School. Bachelors in Enginnering , Electronics and Communication Engineering 2005. High School , Science 2000. Select One , Standard 10th 1998. Where can I find a Acclaris Inc Software Engineer resume example in Tampa, Florida 33611?
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Conflict Resolution Research Papers
Custom Winery Business essay paper writing service. The location of the papers on conflict resolution proposed premium winery will be in New York in the region of egypt Finger Lakes. The production per year will start at about 1,800 cases in the initial year and is expected to increase to around 10,000 cases in the fifth year. The winery business will specialize in the production of several vinifera varieties which include Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir, and Riesling. Most of the wine that will be produced will be sold in the local market at the initial stages. However, as the business grows more distributions channels will be opened to ensure the business reaches a wider market both in the national and international levels. The distribution channels that will assist in reaching a wide range of customers will include wine shops and restaurants.
The winery premium is expected to produce high quality wine products. Papers On Conflict Resolution. This forms the basis for essays success of the winery business since customers prefer quality products and services. The market research that has been undertaken indicates that the targeted consumers use higher quality and expensive wines for papers resolution drinking purposes. Descriptive Essays Topics. The winery business proposed in this business plan will capitalize on this trend of consumption to yield success. There are few businesses within this region in the winery that focus on vinifera varietals and, thus, engaging in this business will offer a differential factor from the rest of the businesses in the local market. The business plan proposes financial forecast of the winery business to be about $ 1.8 million for the first four years of research papers operations. The forecast has been made for pmi term papers four years to enable the research papers resolution business to deal with the challenges that may arise during its inception. The utilization of the money will be based on the various functions to be undertaken by the business. These include construction of essays topics tasting room and winery, covering of operating expenses, and research papers resolution, purchase of the winery equipment that is essay on ancient necessary for the wine making process. The mission of the business is to become the research largest producer of essays vinifera wines of the highest quality in New York in the region of Finger Lakes.
The business will reach both local and international consumers offering adequate and enjoyable lifestyle to the stakeholders. Types of business. There are various forms of business that exist within the United State boundaries. Papers. The setting of a business may either be a sole proprietorship, partnership, or even a company. The setting of a company may either be a private company or a public company. The business proposed is going to take the form of a private company. There are various requirements that a business has to how to write studies meet before it is registered as a private company within the laws of the United States. There are various documents that promoters of a company have to submit to the registrar of research papers resolution companies before registration takes effect. The company is pmi term papers required to fill an papers on conflict resolution, application form for registration of a company.
This stage requires appointment of the officers of the company, detailed information regarding the address of the registered office, as well as the names of the essays about share subscribers. The promoters also need to furnish the registrar of papers on conflict resolution companies with a memorandum of association. This is a statement by the promoters of a company of their intention to establish a company. The other requirement for the establishment of the company regards the on ancient pyramids presence of articles of association. Research Papers On Conflict Resolution. The proposed company’s internal rules are contained in this document. The promoters have to develop the rules that will guide the operation of the company before the establishment of the company. These rules have to be approved by the registrar of companies before the egypt certificate of research on conflict resolution registration is issued. It is advisable that a company should engage a professional in deciding the kind of articles that the proposed company requires. Filing of these documents with the companies’ registrar goes together with the nominal registration fee. Once verification of the documents has been done, certificate of incorporation will be issued to the company by pmi term papers the registrar. The issuance of papers on conflict resolution certificate is a legal requirement for the company to be deemed legally existing.
Without the certificate, the company cannot have any legal backing for its existence. The certificate indicates a unique number of the company and the date within which incorporation took place. However, there exists regarding the choice of the name of the company. If these restrictions are not met, then the company cannot be registered. The registrar of how to write a good studies essay companies cannot register a name that is identical to an already registered company. Choosing of the company’s name should indulge careful consideration to ensure coming up with a name that is not similar to that of a registered company.
Deregistration may be deemed necessary if it is realized that the name of a company coincides with that of an earlier registered company. The company may be enjoying benefits including goodwill that it has not created by using the research papers reputation of another company. If the name chosen indicates any connection with the state and lacks the support from the specific government, then the company cannot be registered under that name. Homework. In addition, if the name chosen gives an indication of a criminal offence, then that company cannot be registered. Licenses for research on conflict resolution the Winery. Alcoholic Beverage Control License. There are several types of write studies essay licenses required to allow for the inception of the winery business in research papers on conflict, this region. The business requires acquiring the control license on the alcoholic beverage. Any business dealing with the retail of liqor needs to resources have this kind of papers on conflict license in work essay, order to be considered legally operating. There certain requirements that has to research resolution be met if this license is to topics be issued to the promoters of the business. The license of operating this kind of business is given to persons strictly of at least 21 years of age.
The person receiving such certification must be a citizen of the United States or an alien who is admitted for lawful permanent residence. The person should not be a victim of conviction due to felony, permitting or promoting prostitution, or selling liqor without the alcoholic beverage license. Research On Conflict Resolution. The person should not be a police officer or one whose license was previously revoked. All these conditions have to be met before an individual or an work essay, entity is granted the right to papers operate a liqor retailing business. The same procedure has to be identified for businesses wanting to deal in wholesale business. The wholesale license on alcoholic beverage has to be sought before the business is legally instituted. Air Pollution Control Permit.
Businesses dealing in production and activities that may have some implications on the environment need to have this form of license. The Department of Environmental Conservation ensures safeguarding and protection of air within New York. The goals of Department of Environmental Conservation revolve around public welfare and health. They accomplish this by ensuring that the industries that are set within the region are environmentally sound. Before commencing any project, a business requires to obtain permit from the department of how to write essay environmental conservation. Any business that engages in a business that has negative implication on the environment without acquiring the environment permit is subject to papers on conflict resolution legal action. The implication may either be a court preceding or fines. Any business that is dealing with employees is supposed to how to essay have certain kinds of insurances as required by law. These include unemployment insurance, workers compensation insurance, and disability insurance depending on the business locality. The workers compensation policy protects employees against loss of income.
The policy also shields employees from incurring medical expenses through accidents related to the job. The compensation insurance coverage on workers may be done through a self-insured basis, commercial carrier, or even through a compensation program on research on conflict state workers. In the event that the workers become disabled, the disability insurance cover protects them from essays topics loss of income. The employer may also cover himself against loss of income due to disability that may befall them. Most of the upcoming investors in most cases do not consider insuring themselves. They fail to consider the research on conflict resolution implications of the occurrence of the risk on their beneficiaries.
New York state requires employers to undertake insurance coverage on partial wage replacement to essays language the employees that are eligible in the event of injury or sickness that is not related to research papers resolution work. There exists a requirement for the payment unemployment insurance taxes for on ancient egypt businesses with employees. The business has to research papers on conflict be registered with the workforce agency of the state. Third party insurance is another cover that is required to be maintained by businesses. Woman Work. This insurance covers third parties from injuries. This is a motor insurance where a company is required to insure against third parties who may fall victim in the event of accident occurring. Types of Contracts. Centralized State Contracts. The centralized contracts covers a range of services, commodities, and technologies that fir the needs of the users of a contract. A centralized contract occurs through a competitive bidding process that is open to on conflict eligible businesses with the objective of purchasing commodities.
The best value is used in the process of securing technology and service contracts. The centralized contracts are mostly used by state agencies among any other authorized user. Essay On Ancient. The centralized contracts occur in three categories. Papers On Conflict. These include service, technology, and commodity contracts. These are contracts that are established by essays agencies for the purpose of procuring on an ongoing basis. These contracts often take place for a number of on conflict resolution years. The agency that is purchasing the contract has the responsibility of determining whether it meets function, form, and utility. Descriptive Essays Topics. Determination should also be made as to whether the contract will allow inter-agency use. Where the papers resolution requirements of an agency fails to be met via a preferable source, agency contract, or centralized contract, private procurement may be an egypt pyramids, option to the process. Research. This form of procurement may involve a competitive bid that is formal or a purchase that depends on discretionary spending. The choice of the two on the value attached to the procurement.
Discretionary purchases are made below monetary levels established by write a good studies the statute and are done at the will of the agencies. Discretionary purchase does not require a competitive procurement process that is formal but has to give justification on the vendor selection. This selection also requires to papers on conflict be documented by on ancient egypt the agencies. The policies and procedures of the research papers resolution internal agency have to resources be complied with alongside having reasonableness of papers on conflict price. There should also be an assurance that the purchases that have been made meet the requirement of function, form, and utility.
The proposed business will make use of the private procurement contracts. This type of contract does not involve a lot of procedural practices that have to be met before a purchase is made. Given that it is a new business, the procedural requirements may derail the essays language performance and papers on conflict, operations of the business. The owner of the business has the a good studies discretion regarding the research on conflict purchases to essay egypt undertake and who to contract to supply certain goods and services. The absence of formal requirements and legal documentation makes the contract easier to undertake. The analysis on the industry indicates that the existing consumption trend is favorable as far as the domestic wine market is papers resolution concerned. The case is essay on ancient pyramids even better for the businesses producing ultra premium wines.
Since the year 1993 the per capita on consumption of papers on conflict resolution wine has been increasing. In the last few years, the sales on the retail wine have been increasing by 8.2% each year. This increasing trend may be due to the increment in the popularity of wines. The increasing performance of the pmi term papers wine business in the region makes the business more lucrative, especially for profit maximizing investors. This is an opportunity for investors in this sector since there is surety of market due to the positive performance trend.
The performance of this business is expected to grow into an international business majoring in exportation in research, the long run. Experts in the sector of wine production portend that the positive performance in the market of premium wine is a result of the aging of baby boomers. This group of baby boomers is getting into language, the drinking age and, hence, creates an expansive market. The consumption of premium wine is, therefore, expected to increase in unrolling years. Most of the baby boomers have a lot of wealth that has been accumulated over their active years. In this regard, they have sufficient money to spend on the purchase of luxury items like wine. A survey conducted in the United States indicates that the majority of the aged people above 50 years consume a lot of research wine compared to citizens within the age bracket of resources 21-29 years.
This demographic trend is favorable for the performance of wine business as it allows to enter expansive market. Business entering this market has no much worry regarding the research papers availability of about market. The federal government highly regulates the market of alcoholic beverages, wine being one of them. There is requirement for application of special license for businesses engaging to invest in this sector. Due to the complexity of the process of research achieving the legal requirements there is a necessity of hiring a lawyer. Without the help of a lawyer the process may be tedious, expensive, and language, time consuming for the investor.
There are several things that require approval prior to the process of production. These include the expected wine labels, storage facilities, and production facilities. The business has to incur payment of federal exercise taxes for the sales made. The exercise tax in New York is cheaper due the credit tax given to the farm wineries, thus, lowering the effective exercise tax to the federal government. Papers. There are other exercise taxes by the state that have to be complied with if the business is to run in the economy. There exist annual payment taxes for the small business, and woman essay, the business has to incur the research resolution cost of farm winery permit in the event that requirement will necessitate the application of one. Insurance is a vital element in the operations of a business.
Insuring the business is optional for the businesses in this region. However, there is a requirement for woman the businesses to ensure their employees during their period of engagement with the company. Once all the legal requirements are met, the business is at liberty to operate without infringement of its rights. The constitution of the United States prohibits the taking of private property without just compensation for the sake of public use. The clause on takings is found in the Fifth Amendment of the constitution of the United States Fifth Amendment. This protection is also found within the international laws of investment where expropriation is prohibited without due compensation. Out-of-state wine shipments are complicated as well as highly regulated. The 21 st amendment to the constitution of the United States created prohibition in regard to the exportation of alcoholic beverages. The amendment stipulated that individual state has the responsibility of determining the research papers resolution regulation of transportation and importation of pmi term papers alcoholic beverages. The establishment that followed by most states is the three tier system of distribution.
The suppliers are placed on one end and the retailers placed on the other end. Wholesalers operate in resolution, between the suppliers and the retailers. The three tier system of distribution prohibits the essays topics wineries from selling wine directly to foreign consumers. There are other states that do not have this system of distribution. The exportation of wine to these states is easier due to lack of stringent requirements. However, New York does not observe this kind of papers distribution structure and makes it hard for the business to deal with the exportation business. However, the business will establish external outlets within several foreign states. The distribution centers will be based in Europe and Africa. Since foreign sales have to be made through a wholesaler and, hence, the necessity to establish distribution agencies. Any foreign investor is bound by the rules and regulations that exist in the host country. The investor and the host government enter into treaties and consensuses as to the regulations and essays language, requirements on the part of the state.
The extent of observance of these obligations determines to a greater extent the performance of the foreign investment in the host country. The umbrella clauses functionality is in research on conflict resolution, the arbitral jurisprudence (North American Free Trade Agreement 67). The contractual relationship brought about under the umbrella clauses have the possibility of bringing about the creation of treaties. The umbrella clauses necessitated the write legal studies essay emergence of tribunals tasked in papers resolution, solving disputes in case they arise. In coming up with a judgment, the tribunal should distinguish whether it is invoking the international law or the essay egypt domestic law.
The winery business is set to follow the domestic laws of the countries where we will engage our products (Cassese 91). Environment regulations have a major impact on the winemaking and grape growing process. Resolution. There is a large amount of waste water that is produced by wineries. There exists regulation regarding the disposal of this water. International investment law regulates investment in project that will lead to environmental degradation. The international law has a backing on environmental and social justice. Essay Egypt Pyramids. As regards investments that influence the social and environmental policies, disputes are likely to arise between the investor and the host country. The country will impose rules and regulations to protect its citizens from injustices by a foreign investment. Papers On Conflict. The criticality of the issue when it comes to the violation of social justice is of prime importance to the host government.
The core value of a government is to protect its citizens from the resources violation of on conflict resolution their rights (Bath et al. 43). Various bodies and tribunals have been set under the international investment laws to ensure dispute resolution. Since the proposed businesses is language expected to operate internationally with due time, the measures set regarding environment regulation have to be observed and, any dispute arising dealt with accordingly. Fragmentation of the wine industry is high and has high competition. A winery premium that is small may expect some competition from domestic, local, and international producers. However, most wineries in Finger Lake have a kind of insulation against competition outside the region due to the majority of sales being made within the tasting room. The competition that is likely to be faced by the business comes from the small businesses operating in the same business within the region.
These small businesses will be the direct competitors of the business. The increase in consumption of the domestic wine has enhanced the expansive nature of the market. The growth in the market has encouraged the resolution wine producers to improve their quality to take advantage of the larger profit margins, hence, doubling their growth rates. New firms dealing with the production of essays wines are entering the market resulting in positive trend in the growth of industry in line with the consumption trend. The distribution strategy of the business requires the majority of the wine to be produced and sold locally via the tasting room. Core competitors to this business will be small wineries in Finger Lake that specialize in the production of premium wines using the same varietals as is the case of the study. The competitive advantage of the on conflict proposed winery is the production of vinifera wines basing the resources on essay egypt pyramids the top vineyards within its locality. Unlike other producers in Finger Lake, the winery proposed in this study will lay its emphasis on vinifera varietals. Research Papers On Conflict. The business identifies itself as the producer of vinifera wines that are of resources high quality. Through the purchase of the best grapes, the business will be able to produce wines of higher quality compared to its competitors’. The business will also invest in wine making equipments that are of the highest quality.
This generates a competitive advantage for on conflict the business and acts as the strength of the proposed business. The business will emphasize on a more focused strategy by having fewer but quality products in the market. In the long run the business will utilize other distribution channels that include wine shops and high end restaurants. This will result in weaker dependence on tasting room for sales purposes in the long run. This will assist in the reinforcing of the ultra premium strategy. The target population of the proposed business is the essays about wealthier consumers and the educated baby boomers. These customers possess high wine education, regularly entertain friends and business associates, and resolution, enjoy dining out. Various groups of businesses also form part of the target market for the proposed business.
Wholesale distributors are effective in ensuring distribution to wine shops and restaurants situated within the nation. These will be a major group of customers for sales outside the tasting room. Packaging is another important aspect in the marketing of the product. There should be appealing packaging to ensure that the product sells to a larger population in descriptive, the market. Every item, regardless of the value it has, attracts customers when the wrapping is papers done using an attractive package. Wine makers have to essays about language make decisions on the labels to use, the text to be put on the labels, the type of papers on conflict resolution corks and bottles to use, boxes, and capsules. Descriptive Essays. All these aspects make a contribution to research papers the consumption experience of an pmi term papers, individual. The packaging decisions communicate information about the wine quality. The label is the first that the consumers notice ones doing window shopping. The label, therefore, contributes towards the decision a consumer makes regarding the purchase of the papers on conflict wine.
The labels are just as important as the product itself, and needs critical evaluation before settling on the label to use. Labels should be esthetically appealing, inviting, informative, and should reflect the identity of the pmi term papers winery. The proposed business will have to hire a designer to take charge of ensuring a kind of label. Bottling of the wine will be done on a standard bottle and will use the colors and shapes that have been traditionally used in the European bottles. This is the design that has been generally used by winery companies all over the world. Pinot Noir will be packed in burgundy bottles, Riesling in amber Riesling, and Cabernet Franc in Bordeaux bottles. The business also has to make a decision on the type of cork to use. The choice must be made between synthetic and traditional corks. There has been an increase in the use of synthetic corks increasing the papers on conflict resolution popularity of the cork. Woman Work Essay. The corks, according to the manufacturers, do not allow leakage and they eliminate evaporation.
Natural corks make use of a traditional sealing material, which is preferable to many consumers since it allows smelling of the cork, hence. adding sophistication and research resolution, romance of the drinking experience of wine. The tradition of wine in work, Europe makes use of natural corks, and consumers have adapted to this type of sealing. In this case, therefore, the proposed winery business will make use of the natural corks as the bottle seals. Capsules help in completing the package, thus, adding a professional appearance to research papers the bottle. Pmi Term Papers. Due to their cosmetic nature, necessary care should be observed in ensuring that the objective of research resolution complementing packaging and label is achieved.
The proposed business will make use of the traditional foil type of capsule. The packaging of wine is done using a variety of boxes. In the wine making industry, the standard box that is commonly used for packaging purposes is the twelve bottle cases cardboard. This type of box will be used in the proposed business to homework ensure consumers’ needs are met. Additional products will be given to research ensure that the business performs better compared to other businesses. This will ensure retention of the customers and attraction of more customers.
The additional services offered are intended to create a winery experience among the consumers. Tasting of wine will be encouraged to tract customers, both existing and pmi term papers, potential, to visit the business and have a tryout of the various wines. Winery tours, which are educational, will be offered during weekends to ensure that the customers possess knowledge on grape growing and winemaking process. Other services like entertainment during the harvest period and holding of harvest parties will be encouraged. These additional products will serve to differentiate the proposed business with the existing winery businesses. Research Papers. This creates a competitive advantage to the proposed business. The proposed winery business will adopt a strategy of high quality pricing. Woman Work Essay. Under this strategy the company will charge higher prices for its products that are high quality. The prestige pricing will be an indication of the quality of the product that is being sold. Prices in research papers, the region of Finger Lakes are very low compared to the prices prevailing in other regions that grow grapes. Traditionally, wineries in Finger Lake have produced wines that are lowly priced from French American hybrids and native varieties.
Most of the local consumers are used to about language wines that are sweet, fruity, and lighter. In this regard, most of the local consumers may not have the will to pay prices that are high to vinifera wines, which seem complex. The reliance on sales in the tasting room gives a cap on the prices that producers from Finger Lake may charge. However, research indicates that preferences and tastes by consumers will shift to on conflict resolution complex wines from the lighter wines. Finger Lake producers may have an opportunity of increasing prices when the preferences changes. Some wineries in Finger Lake have of late started to produce vinifera wines that are of higher quality although the prices charged are lower compared to pmi term papers other regions.
The prices charged by research papers resolution the competitors should act as a guide in the setting future prices once the producers have acquired knowledge of quality products production. The aspect of having higher prices in the future forms the basis for adopting high pricing strategy. Producers may make use of a combination of promotional practices. These may include advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, direct marketing, and public relations. The proposed promotion goal of the winery will make use of differentiation as well as other promotional activities that will assist in improving the premium positioning status of the winery. The promotional activities will target both the middle men and the end consumers.
The promotional activities of the end consumers are intended to converge the consumers to the winery. The business will also seek to create a close relationship with the middle men and establish a contact link that will keep them at bay. Topics. A small proportion of wine produced in the business will be used for promotional services. Promotion is a vital aspect of the business as it contributes towards effective performance of the business. Promotion assists in increasing the sales made by the business and, hence, the profitability of the business.
These promotional activities, therefore, help the research business in the achievement of the inception goals. The channel that is resources homework preferred initially is the direct selling to the consumers. The direct selling favor the performance of the business as it allows the winery to collect their retail prices for the wines they sell. The kind of direct sales that is most common in the region of Finger Lakes is the tasting room sales. The initial market for the business has been proposed to research resolution be the tasting room; hence, the channel of direct sales will be more efficient.
Wine trail programs have been successful within the region and, thus, enabling the essays small wineries to sell their wine in the tasting room. The second channel of marketing involves selling directly to in-house distributors. This distribution channel allows the business to sell their products directly to research papers on conflict restaurants, wine shops, and the liquor stores. The advantage of using this channel of distribution is that the business will acquire higher margins. The businesses will also be able to create a relationship with the retailers. The process of selling to retailers may, however, be time consuming as it involves making regular visits to the account service . The third channel of marketing involves selling the products to the distributors. Pmi Term Papers. Distributors may be effective in resolution, making supplies to the retailers, thus, making the pmi term papers role of distribution easier for the business. Due to the projected nature of growth of the on conflict business, all the three channels of essays about language distribution will be used. However, in the initial stages of operating of the business the first distribution channel will be more efficient. The other channels will be used later as the business becomes more stable and continues to grow (Young 13). Buy Winery Business essay paper online.
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Research papers on conflict resolution
Custom Florence Nightingale Essay. The research paper is a critical analysis of Nightingale Florence life and contribution to nursing. Her contribution in politics, statistics and health care are brought forth in this paper. Florence Nightingale has been thought to be one of the research papers resolution, most radical and influential figures of essay egypt, her century and has been hailed for that during her time and present. Papers Resolution! This was echoed by Gorrell who stated that “Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, transformed the practice into a respectable profession and set the about language, standards for clean and safe hospitals throughout the world (Deshpande 388). The paper also tries to papers resolution, establish if indeed her works has impacted on about language training nurses as well as social reforms over the years. Since the time of human existence, illnesses and injuries did pose a great deal of threat to human well being. There was thus need to ensure that those individual who were in ill health were supposed to be cared for. Over time, the concept turned to be referred to as nursing; this is on conflict a healthcare profession that concentrate on pmi term papers providing care for persons, family units as well as communities with the aim of helping such individuals, maintain, gain and recover optimal health status hence making them ‘save’ from death. It is worth mentioning that quality service provision is key to attaining the mention issues via nursing. With her, sanitation as well as nursing ethics was in papers on conflict resolution, forefront in essays, ensuring that those affected will quickly gain optimal health if these two things were seriously thought about and put into action.
Additionally, while working as a volunteer nurse, after all other nurses went to sleep she could stroll around at papers resolution, night with a lamp in her hand ensuring that each and every patient was at descriptive essays topics, least in a good shape, hence being referred as the The Lady with the Lamp As a daughter of William Edward Nightingale and Frances Smith, she was born in 12 May 1820, in Italy in the city of VillaColombia in Florence. Her family was an upper class one, lavish and on conflict resolution well connected. Together with her elder sister (Parthenope), they were brought up in Derbyshire and they live occasionally in Hampshire. Woman! While moving through these places, she happened to visit London and Isle of Wight (McDonald 127). Her education was a responsibility of governesses but later, her father an research papers resolution educated person from Cambridge shouldered the pmi term papers, responsibility. Showing natural interest of learning, she came to learn about classics, the bible, politics, Aristotle and Euclid. At age twenty, she made her desire to learn mathematics known to her parent, her mother objected this idea even her father persuaded her to study things that suit ladies. Research Resolution! Later, her parents relented to work essay, her demands and papers resolution had her taught mathematics, she proved to be a statistic guru (Bostridge 122).
Being brought up in a Christian family, Church of England, this played a bigger role in shaping her especially being unbiased in terms of religion, in 1837, she believed she had a calling from God. Resources Homework! In 1945, she again showed an interest in issues relating to social science, nursing. It is on conflict resolution worth noting that her family strongly objected her quest to gain some nursing experience. The reason behind this objection was that during that time, nursing was not a profession for a well educated woman. Her dreams started being realized when she visited Europe and Egypt in 1849 where she was able to learn some nursing issues. It is worth noting that it was indeed in how to legal essay, Egypt that Nightingale started her training in nursing, a hospital ran by Roman Catholic (Bostridge 34). In 1850, she visited a hospital in Kaiserwerth; she later went there for a three months training as a nurse. She later went to Paris, Sisters of Mercy.
In 1853, she went back to England and volunteered in one of the health provision centers- Establishment for Gentlewomen during Illness. In 1854, in the wake of the Crimean War, Nightingale together with other nurses was sent to assist wounded Briton soldiers. Being a woman, she had to papers resolution, counter strong opposition/military command; she successfully did this and reformed the existing condition which resulted to reduced number of death. Employing her mathematic and statistic knowledge, she managed to come up with Polar Area Diagram. Notably, in 1860, through Nightingale Fund, she managed to open the woman work essay, NightingaleTraining School situated at St. Thomas’ Hospital. Additionally, she wrote notes on nursing. Research On Conflict! She was consulted by governments especially in England and United States of America concerning issues related to health of woman, military officers. She became a honorary member of American Statistical Association in 1874 and a year before; she was awarded the Royal Red Cross by research resolution the Queen. According Bostridge 211 she also contributed a lot in essays about, various filed for instance, politics, theology as well as literature and women movement. From 1857, she contracted a serious disease that made her to be bedridden.
Despite her condition she strived in her efforts in social reforms. She died on papers resolution 13 August 1910 at the age of 90 years. History of nursing. As stated previously, her family was in objection of her gaining nursing experience majorly due to the poor status of the profession. Historically, it is a European concept and descriptive essays was practiced by catholic monks’ men providing care to research on conflict, the sick persons during the time of dark ages in Europe. A Good Essay! In 17 th centaury, healthcare in Europe were being provided by individuals who were serving punishment. Nursing by then was associated with prostitution, drunkardness as well as obnoxiousness. It was the efforts of Nightingale that transformed the entire field and people started viewing it as a reputable profession. Theodore’s hospital that employed nurses of good character contributed in shaping nursing as a profession.
This led to papers, formation of British Institute of Nursing Sisters (Deshpande 389). Things change for the better over years and at present, various countries do have policies, rules and regulations that have made nursing to be what it is today, providing better services hence meeting the quest of making individuals, communities gain optimal health. Nightingale works and on ancient contribution to research papers, nursing. It is worth mentioning from the onset that despite the fact that Nightingale passed on close a centaury ago, what she contributed to nursing as a profession is essays about being cherished at present and I bet many more years to come (Nightingale 22). All these things we currently enjoy in healthcare from proper care and treatment of wounds, sterile conditions in modern theater rooms, a shift from inpatient healthcare provision to outpatient care provision, all these thanks to Nightingale among others.
There are about five broad areas that Nightingale contributed and influences current nursing as a profession. These include; sanitation, teaching and research resolution or research, nursing ethics, sanitation, nutrition and provision of facilities and other equipment (Klakovich 1). Research and teaching. It is worth mentioning that Nightingale did contribute a lot in the field of research and teaching of essays language, nursing as a profession. Research On Conflict Resolution! Through her prowess in statistics, she managed to carry out a study in which she came up with a polar area diagram this was a graphic representation of how to write legal, death rates at research papers on conflict, the time of Crimean war, between 1854 and 1856 (Klakovich 2). In her diagram she clearly depicted the egypt pyramids, number of death as a result of research, wounds as well as other causes.
She was able to calculate mortality rate based on the data that Britain had a total of slightly over 30,000 soldiers. This thus goes without saying that she was able collect data and systematically keep the records, this still happens today although somewhat improved due to technology advancement. Through her research she was able also to provide evidence that indeed better sanitation is need for better care to woman work, be provided. Currently research and resolution effective record keeping is the about language, norm in the field of nursing, thanks to Nightingale. Research Papers On Conflict Resolution! In addition, her literature works in (almost two hundred pamphlets and pmi term papers reports).
One book among these many publications is titled ‘Nursing Notes’ published in 1860 (Nightingale 100). It did prove to papers on conflict, be of how to write legal studies, significance in training and teaching upcoming nurses. On the same note, it is important to have in mind that it was her efforts to see to it that the poorly trained and arrogant nurses of the time, were provided with training as well as better homes that will catalyze formation of a moral life. She then came up with Nightingale Training School situated at St. Thomas’ Hospital funded from Nightingale Fund.
From then, we have seen substantial number of institutes that aim at resolution, training nurses instilling them with good moral and ethics so that they can effectively and successfully meet the objective of nursing. Lastly, in terms of teaching and homework research, she demonstrated although not in various literatures that ‘internship’ is paramount for nurses to gain skills and knowledge (Parse 321). Through her, while working in various healthcare institutions, she gained a myriad of skills and knowledge from administration to papers, research. Through her teaching she mentored one particular U.S citizen Linda Richard who successfully went back to woman work essay, her country and papers on conflict established a quality nursing school. Essay Egypt Pyramids! She again took her nursing services to Japan.
While volunteering as a superintendent, she came into papers on conflict, a conclusion that the patients did not regained optimal health and about most of them died as a result of poor dietary. Through her, we have come a long way concerning the type of research on conflict, food that is provided to the sick. Additionally, the essays about, amount and frequency of food that the currently are being given stems from the idea of Nightingale (Nightingale 121). When she was assigned together with other thirty eight nurses, we are told that she was upset by the kind of diet those sick and injured soldiers were being subjected to. She even went an papers on conflict extra mile in using her pocket to buy patients fruits and other food supplements. Coupled with better sanitation, we see the about, mortality rates of soldier declined from a staggering figure of resolution, 42% to merely 2% (Nightingale 133). Nightingale is also saluted to what she contributed to nursing ethics and philosophy.
For instance, while teaching nursing, she advocated for on ancient egypt, her students to not only focus on one aspect in a patient but concentrate on the total needs of a patient, this meant attending to both psychological as well as social well being. This is what has been adopted at present-a patient centered approach (Edwards 1089). Additionally, she is also one person who laid a foundation on virtue theory in the field of nursing. This theory asserts that the profession of papers, nursing does carry with it some categories of moral obligations because it has moral influence upon patients as well as those who are providing the care. Through her we learn that nursing is a passion or quest of information about nursing, on the basis of sets of values, attitude and concepts. Pyramids! All these need to be incorporated when taking care of a clients/patient to foster health promotion that encompasses a relationship between the client as well as his/her family Deshpande 390. Research Papers On Conflict Resolution! This is demonstrated when she used to walk at studies essay, night with a lamp in her hand ensuring that all patient were at least in good shape. In modern nursing, there is what is referred to as ‘psychological effect’ termed as the Florence Nightingale Effect this is a scenario where care providers (nurses) are ‘in love’ with those they are giving nursing services (Edwards 1093). What Nightingale will be remembered for a million years to come is her contribution and struggles in fostering sanitation within healthcare facilities. Upon her arrival at Selimiye Barrack in research papers, Scutari, she was seriously disturbed by the unhygienic condition the sick soldiers were being subjected to. On top of this deplorable condition, the manner with which the sick were being treated, the write legal studies essay, lack of sufficient facilities and medicine made her write to the relevant authorities (Parse 43).
To put what she felt in resolution, action, accompanied by descriptive essays other nurses under her supervision, they thoroughly cleaned the hospital and all equipment and tried their best in restructuring how the sick were cared for. There after, she advocated for better ventilation and warming, healthy houses, sufficient light provision, personal cleanliness, cleaning of rooms and walls, petty management. Research Resolution! All these are found in her book Notes on Nursing under the title “What it is and what it is not” (Nightingale 12) From the review of Florence Nightingale contribution to nursing, it is established that she became a fairy-tale figure for healthcare givers and the general public both at her times and at present. She used her social status and her open-minded education to successfully accomplish her desires and dreams. Her authority in nursing as a profession is irrefutable and her values remain relevant. Through her works, she indeed contributed to how to a good legal, four major broad fields; research and education, proper nutrition, high degree of sanitation, patient centered approach as well as nursing ethics and philosophy. despite the fact that Nightingale passed on on conflict resolution close a centaury ago, what she contributed to nursing as a profession is being cherished at present and I bet many more years to come, because the current better nursing services we enjoy is the fruits of her sweat. Custom Florence Nightingale Essay.
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