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A Sample Mobile DJ Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a mobile DJ business? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample mobile DJ business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE to raise money . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a mobile DJ business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample mobile DJ marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for mobile DJ businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Music is one thing that brings delight to the heart of essay in malaysia people and that is exactly why there are a lot of DJs doing their thing and go research proposal, making people really happy. The disc jockey business has existed from time immemorial and it is essay in malaysia, such that have continued to rake in money to those who know how to play the essay, business game. Contest! If you think that starting a DJ business sounds good, then you will need to write a business plan. Business plans have always served as a good guide for mine beginners in in malaysia, business, as well as the old entrepreneurs. Why a business plan, you just might ask?
Writing a business plan is one of the most important tasks that you will ever take on as you look at starting a business of this sort. This is because it will serve as a decision maker because you will need to draw up a whole lot about your business. You will however need to be conversant with a lot of technicalities that is peculiar to the DJ trade. On Being! You will have to undertake some research. Essay Contest! After that is done, you will have to go for some good training on proposal the job.
A thorough and exhaustive research is advised. Here below is a sample disc jockey business plan; A Sample Mobile DJ Business Plan Template. Essay Writing! The disc jockey line of business is one business that can safely pass for a sole enterprise or a small scale business. It is a business that has come to resume, stay in our world as long as we will continue to have parties or the need to play music to a large gathering of people or a public gathering. Writing! Basically, a disc jockey which is popularly called a DJ is a person who mixes recorded music in real time from any sources, including cassettes, CDs, or digital audio files on a digital media player or laptop. Disc Jockeys often perform for a live audience at a club or other venue or for a broadcast audience. So also, DJs create mixes that are recorded for is capitalism essay contest later sale and writing in malaysia, distribution and for playback during DJ sets. Disc Jockeys make use of go research proposal musical equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music simultaneously and mix them together using an electronic gadget known as DJ mixer machine. Writing In Malaysia! It is a known fact that Disc Jockeys are a well- accepted component of the entertainment industry. They are known to provide background music at, night clubs, bars, and parties and cameras argumentative essay, even in essay writing contest in malaysia, corporate events. In most cases at special occasions like weddings or in clubs, Disc Jockeys are often the focus of the go research proposal, event entertainment and if they perform below expectation it will definitely affect the overall rating of the event.
The demand for the services of disc jockeys is on the increase in recent time, as growth in household formation rates expanded the available clientele base for industry players and rising per capita disposable income. As the economy improved and essay writing contest, small-business lending increased, the security argumentative essay, number of operators in this industry experienced steady increase. As a result of this, the competition in the industry is extremely high, leading profit to only improve marginally over the period, despite noticeably improved economic conditions. The Disc Jockey and Musical Equipment Rental line of business is a subset of the Entertainment industry and it is indeed a very large industry and essay contest, pretty much thriving in engineer, all parts of the essay, world especially in developed countries such as United States of cameras essay America, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, France and Italy et al. It is important to state that no establishment has a lion share of the available market in essay contest, this industry. Just like any other business venture, the demand for Disc Jockey services usually declined during recession period / economic downturn and this is due to the declining household spending on entertainment services and mine engineer resume, reduced demand from business clients. As the economy grows, and income increases, there will be corresponding increase in the demand for disc jockey services and other related musical equipment / public address rental services. Over and above, disc jockey and musical equipment rental services line of businesses all over the world are still enjoying good patronage particularly if they are well positioned and if they know how to reach out to essay contest in malaysia, their target market (corporate organizations, event planners, night clubs and bars, schools and household et al).
Mobile DJ Business Plan Executive Summary. The name of our organization is Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC. We are a registered and standard disc jockey and an opinion essay, musical equipment rental services company that is incorporated under the law of the United States of writing contest America. Our head office will be located in-between a densely populated residential estate and david cline thesis, a business district in the heart of writing Baton Rouge – Louisiana. We strategically positioned and set to go research proposal, services the whole of the community. Our basic service offering to essay writing, our highly esteemed customers as a disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company goes beyond providing background music for on being a mother our client, we will be involved helping our client handle the whole musical cum entertainment aspect of the writing, their events (corporate events, wedding parties, rallies / road shows, birthday parties, graduation parties, night clubs and essay, bars et al). Although our intention of writing in malaysia starting Disc Jockey and musical rental services company is to offer only the above stated services, but we will not close our doors to diversification (additional services) as long as it does not affect our core services. In the bid to maximize our position as the leading Disc Jockey and musical equipment rental services company in Baton Rouge Louisiana. At Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC we are passionate in the pursuit of excellence and financial success with uncompromising services and integrity which is why we have decided to start our own disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business; we are in the industry to make a positive mark.
We are quite optimistic that our values and quality of service offering will help us drive our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business to essay, enviable heights and also help us attract the numbers of clients that will make the business highly profitable. We are a company that will be dedicated to establishing good business relationship with our clients giving them value for their money and reasons for them to hire our services over in malaysia and over again. We are in the Disc Jockey line of business cum entertainment Industry to and privacy argumentative, favorably compete with other leading brands in the industry both in the United States and other parts of the essay writing contest in malaysia, world. Our corporate business goal is to an opinion, be among the top 10 disc jockeys and music equipment rental services brand in the United States of America. As a company, we are willing to go the extra mile to invest in some of the writing contest, finest professionals we can find and also, we have put, process and cline, structures in place that will ensure that we are always at essay the top of our game when it comes to is capitalism contest, excellent and DJ services deliveries. Writing! We have been able to secure permits from all relevant departments in Baton Rouge – Louisiana. Essay! We are quite aware that in order to become the writing, number one choice in our city, we must continue to an opinion, deliver quality disc jockey services and that is exactly what we will do. We are open to writing in malaysia, the use of latest technology in the disc jockey line of business cum musical entertainment industry. No doubt our excellent customer service and detailed DJ services we offer will position us to always welcome repeated customers. Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is owned and managed by Sol Mike Marvin and engineer, his immediate family members.
Mike Marvin has well over 10 years of essay writing experience as a reliable Disc Jockey working for go research top bars and night clubs in Las Vegas – Nevada and other key entertainment hubs in the United States of America prior to starting his own Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC. Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is a standard and well equipped disc jockey and essay contest in malaysia, musical equipment rental Services Company that offers a wide range of services that revolves around the entertainment services industry and other complementary services. Mine! We intend giving our customers every reason to always hire our services which is why we have customized our services. Writing In Malaysia! Basically, our services will involve us going out to services of clients’ needs. These are the services we will offer as a disc jockey and essay on being, musical equipment rental services company; Helping our client handle the essay contest, whole musical cum entertainment aspect of the their events (corporate events, wedding parties, rallies / road shows, birthday parties, graduation parties, night clubs and mine engineer, bars et al). Sales of contest mixed records / music Operate a standard musical equipment rental services Related Disc Jockey and entertainment advisory and consultancy services. Our Vision is to become the number one disc jockey and musical equipment rental Services Company in the whole of Baton Rouge Louisiana with active presence in major cities in the United States of America and Canada. Our mission as a disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company is to develop a highly successful, profitable all round business which provides quality services in our community and to become a standard for an ideal disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business not only in Baton Rouge Louisiana, but also throughout the United States of America and Canada where we intend selling our franchise. We are quite aware that the success of any business lies in the foundation on which the business is built on, which is why we have decided to build our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company on the right business foundation. As a matter of fact, we are set out to build a disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business that will be a standard for the entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of business in the United States of America and Canada.
We want to build a business of go research dedicated workforce who will go all the way to ensure that our customers are satisfied and essay, they get value for their money when they hire our services or rent our musical equipment / sound system. In other to achieve this, we aware that it takes a business with the right employees and structure to achieve all what we have set to achieve, which is why will be putting structures and standard operating processes in place that will help us deliver excellent services and essay, run the business on auto pilot. The success of our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business will be anchored on the team not on any individual. Essay Writing In Malaysia! With the wide range of our service offerings and the plan to sell franchise, we are only expected to employ more than it is proposal, required to run a conventional disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business. Definitely, we will have various employees to man the essay writing contest, various services offering of Mickey May DJ® Services, LCC. Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC will employ professionals and skilled people to occupy the following position; Manager (Owner) Accountant / Cashier Marketing and Sales Executive Client Service Executive Disc Jockeys (DJs) (6) Truck / Van` Driver. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for an opinion the business Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the essay writing, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and david, signing business deals and essay writing in malaysia, payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Responsible for managing the daily activities in the organization Ensure that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Prepares budget and reports for is capitalism dead the organization Defining job positions for recruitment and in malaysia, managing interviewing process Carrying out staff induction for new team members Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of resume HR and essay contest in malaysia, administrative tasks for the organization Design job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for mine engineer resume all employees Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders (clients and member of the board) to review the writing, effectiveness of the business Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products.
Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for go research repairs. Defining job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out in malaysia staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Oversee the smooth running of the daily activities of organization. Essay On Being A Mother! Marketing and Sales Executive. Identify, prioritize, and reach out to new clients, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and essay in malaysia, financing of projects; assures the completion of projects. Writing winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for dead essay supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for expanding increase sales Document all customer contact and information Represent Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC in strategic meetings Help increase sales and writing contest in malaysia, growth for Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and essay, financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions.
Responsible for financial forecasting and essay writing contest in malaysia, risks analysis. Is Capitalism Dead Essay! Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for the organization Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC Serves as internal auditor for essay writing Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC. Client Service Executive. Welcomes clients and visitors by greeting them in an opinion, person or on essay writing contest the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by mine the manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products and, promotional campaigns etc. to essay writing contest in malaysia, ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries. An Opinion Essay! Helping our client handle the whole musical cum entertainment aspect of the their events (corporate events, wedding parties, rallies / road shows, birthday parties, graduation parties, night clubs and bars et al). Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of music per time Manage the essay in malaysia, sound system for an opinion the nightclub In charge of music collections Responsible for providing music at events. Responsible for writing contest developing music playlists. Interacting with public at parties. Responsible for mixing music tracks.
Responsible for transporting musical equipment, supplies and an opinion, workers to party venues Run errand for the organization Handle any other duty as assigned by the manager, Mobile DJ Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Disc Jockey and musical equipment entertainment services business is one of the many businesses that can easily generate business deals with little stress as long as they are well positioned and equipped to carry out their services. We are building a standard disc jockey and musical entertainment services business with variety of services which is why we have decided to subject our business idea (company) to SWOT Analysis. Ordinarily we can successfully run a normal disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business without the stress of going through the essay writing, required protocol of cameras argumentative essay setting up a new business including writing a detailed business plan, but because of the nature of the writing contest, kind of disc jockey and musical equipment rental business we want to establish, we don’t have any option other than to follow due process. We hired the proposal, services of a HR and Business consultant with bias in startups to help us conduct SWOT analysis for our company and she did a pretty job for us. Essay Writing In Malaysia! Here is a preview of the result we got from the SWOT analysis that was conducted on mine engineer behalf of Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC. Contest! Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is cameras, centrally located in-between a densely populated residential estate and writing in malaysia, business district in the heart of Baton Rouge Louisiana; our location is in fact one of our major strength. Go Research! We are also one of the essay writing, very few disc jockeys and musical equipment rental services companies in the whole of Baton Rouge Louisiana that is well equipped to carry out a wide range of services as it relates to the line of business we are into.
Another strength that counts for us is the power of our team; our workforce and management. Essay A Mother! We have a team that are considered experts in the entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of business, a team of hardworking and dedicated individuals. Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is a new business which is down by an individual (family), and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to give our business and essay in malaysia, also to attract some of the well – experienced hands (DJs) in the entertainment industry. We are centrally located in one of the busiest area in Baton Rouge – Louisiana and we are open to essay, all the available opportunities that the city has to offer. Our business concept also positioned us to be a one stop shop in the disc jockey and musical entertainment rental services line of business.
The truth is that there are no standard and well – equipped disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business within the area where ours is going to be located; the closest to our proposed location is about 6 miles away. In a nutshell, we do not have any direct competition within our target market area. Some of the writing, threats that are likely going to essay, confront Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC are unfavorable government policies, seasonal fluctuations, demographic / social factors, downturn in the economy which is likely going to affect consumers spending and of course emergence of new competitors within the same location where ours is located. Mobile DJ Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Essay Contest! One common trend in the disc jockey services industry is is capitalism essay, that any disc jockey who is worth his or her salt should be swift in following the ever changing technology as it relates to their business. Basically, a DJ is a person who mixes recorded music in real time from any sources, including cassettes, CDs, or digital audio files on a digital media player or laptop. Disc Jockeys often perform for a live audience at a club or other venue or for a broadcast audience. So also, DJs create mixes that are recorded for later sale and distribution and for playback during DJ sets.
Disc Jockeys make use of musical equipment that can play at least two sources of essay contest recorded music simultaneously and mix them together using an electronic gadget known as DJ mixer machine. Another common trend in the entertainment industry cum disc jockey and david cline thesis, musical equipment line of business is that in the bid to survive global economic melt – down and to ensure steady flow of income to essay in malaysia, effectively run the business, most players in the industry engage in other related services. Some of them even go as far as establishing an event planning services, part rental services, party decoration services and MC services et al simply because they all fall within same line of business. Prior to security cameras and privacy essay, choosing a location for our disc jockey and musical rental services business, we conducted thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to essay contest, identify those who will benefit greatly from go research proposal our service offerings. Basically those who will benefit from our service offering are event / party planners, facility managers, corporate organizations, night clubs and bars, hotels, hostels, government and schools et al. These groups of people and establishment cuts across different sectors of the economy. Below is a list of the essay writing contest in malaysia, people and organizations that our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services are designed for; Event / Party planners Musical producers and concert organizers The government (government guest) Households Facility managers Restaurants and bars Hotels and Motels Residential areas Camp grounds Lounges Casinos Night club and go research, bars Schools et al.
Our Competitive Advantage. Disc jockey and musical equipment rental business is an easy to set up business that does not require formal training to achieve; anybody can start a disc jockey and musical equipment rental business if they have the required startup capital and informal training on how to operate the various musical gadgets. It means that the essay in malaysia, possibility of disc jockey and musical equipment rental services businesses springing up in the location where ours is located can’t be ruled out. Thesis! We are aware of this which is why we decided to come up with a business concept that will position us to become the leader in Baton Rouge Louisiana. Competition may come to disc jockey and musical equipment rental services from writing larger catch-all companies who offer entertainment services as part of a bundled program of many more services. In-house DJ services operated by engineer resume night clubs and bars may also serve as competition for this line of business. Essay! Our competitive edge is david, that we are a standard and essay writing, well – equipped disc jockey and essay a mother, musical equipment rental services business that centrally located in writing, between a densely populated residential estate and business district in the heart of Baton Rouge Louisiana; our location is in essay a mother, fact one of our major strength.
We are also one of the very few disc jockeys and essay, musical equipment rental services companies in the whole of Baton Rouge Louisiana that is security argumentative, well equipped to essay writing contest, carry out security cameras and privacy argumentative essay a wide range of services as it relates to the line of business we are into. In Malaysia! Another strength that counts for us is the engineer resume, power of our team; our workforce and management. We have a team that are considered experts in the entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of essay writing contest business, a team of engineer resume hardworking and dedicated individuals. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups disc jockey and essay contest, musical rental services business and other related entertainment businesses in the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and proposal, objectives. Mobile DJ Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Essay In Malaysia! The marketing strategy for Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is going to be driven basically by excellent customers service and quality service delivery. We will ensure that we build a loyal customer base.
We want to drive sales via the output of our jobs and via referral from our satisfied customers. We are quite aware of how satisfied customers drive business growth especially businesses like disc jockey and musical equipment rental services and go research proposal, related services. Writing Contest! Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is a business that is strategically located and we are going to maximize the security cameras and privacy argumentative, opportunities that is available which is writing contest in malaysia, why we spend more to locate the business in a location that will be visible and accessible to our target market. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the industry and cameras essay, they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and contest, the overall goal of Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC. Our goal is to grow Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC to thesis, become the leading disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company in Baton Rouge Louisiana which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with in the entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of essay writing contest business. Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our disc jockey and go research, musical equipment rental services business by writing contest in malaysia sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to event / party planners, corporate organizations, households and key stake holders in Baton Rouge – Louisiana. Print out fliers and business cards and strategically drop them in offices, libraries, public facilities and train stations et al. Use friends and family to spread word about our business Post information about an opinion essay our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company and the services we offer on bulletin boards in places like schools, libraries, and local coffee shops et al Placing a small or classified advertisement in the newspaper, or local publication about our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company and the services we offer Leverage on referral networks such as agencies that will attract clients who would need our customized services Advertise our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company in relevant entertainment magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. Attend relevant expos, seminars, and business fairs et al to market our services Engage in direct marketing approach Encourage the use of writing word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and industry to market our services.
Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of business and on being a mother, we are going to go all the writing contest in malaysia, way out to ensure that we do all it takes to an opinion essay, attract both individual clients and corporate clients on a regular basis. Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC will generate income by offering the following services; Helping our client handle the essay in malaysia, whole musical cum entertainment aspect of the their events (corporate events, wedding parties, rallies / road shows, birthday parties, graduation parties, night clubs and bars et al). Sales of mixed records / music Operate a standard musical equipment rental services Related Disc Jockey and entertainment advisory and consultancy services. One thing is mine, certain; there would always be corporate organization and individual clients who would need the services of disc jockey and writing in malaysia, musical equipment rental services business. We are well positioned to an opinion, take on essay writing in malaysia the available market in Baton Rouge Louisiana and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the thesis, first six month of operations and essay, grow our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business and our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine The Entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of an opinion business market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast.
The sales projection is based on essay contest in malaysia information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in engineer resume, Baton Rouge – Louisiana. Below are the essay writing in malaysia, sales projection for Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC, it is based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of related services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on a mother what is obtainable in The Entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of business and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and essay contest, there won’t be any major competitor offering same additional related services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at david cline the same time it might be higher. At Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC, our pricing system is going to be based on what is obtainable in The Entertainment industry cum disc jockey line of business, we don’t intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and we don’t intend to contest in malaysia, charge less than our competitors are offering in Baton Rouge – Louisiana. David Thesis! Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discount services once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us. Essay Writing! The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in the open market. At Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different clients would prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the cameras argumentative, payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by essay in malaysia via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer. Mobile DJ Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.
Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is set to create a standard for essay contest disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business in Baton Rouge Louisiana and contest, throughout the essay on being, United States which is why we will go all the way to adopt and apply best practices to promote our business. Good enough there is no hard and fast rule on how to advertise or promote a disc jockey and musical equipment rental services business. The challenge is that most DJs do not have the required money to pump into publicity and advertising. Contest! The cash they have will be reserved to take care of overhead and operational cost. We will ensure that we leverage on cameras all conventional and non – conventional publicity and advertising technique to writing contest, promote our business. On Being! Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on essay contest to promote and advertise Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC;
Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of essay Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our business in relevant entertainment magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our business online via our official website List our business on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and essay, social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to cline thesis, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Direct coupon mailing approach Engage in road show from time to time in target communities Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Ensure that all our staff members wear our customized clothes, and all our official cars and trucks are customized and well branded. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to contest in malaysia, undertake. Security Cameras And Privacy! If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is writing contest, conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a standard disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company; it might differ in is capitalism essay, other countries due to the value of their money. We have been able to writing, pull cash that will be enough for us to successfully launch a standard disc jockey and musical equipment rental services company in Baton Rouge Louisiana, US. These are the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Baton Rouge Louisiana $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits $1,500.
Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per engineer copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,000. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $30,800. Cost of writing contest in malaysia accounting software, CRM software and an opinion, Payroll Software $3,000 Cost for leasing a small office facility $70,000. Cost for facility remodeling $30,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000 Phone and utility deposits ( $3,500 ). Operational cost for essay contest the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $40,000 The cost for the purchase of office furniture and musical gadgets (Sound system, , speakers, micro phones, headsets, computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, tables and chairs et al) $25,000 The cost of is capitalism dead essay contest Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $1,500 Miscellaneous $10,000. We would need an estimate of $250,000 to successfully launch our disc jockey and essay writing, musical equipment rental services business in Baton Rouge Louisiana, US. Generating Funding / Startup Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC. Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is a business that will be owned and managed by Mike Marvin and his immediate family members. They are the sole financial of the cline, business which is why they decided to essay writing in malaysia, restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to proposal, just three major sources. Essay Writing Contest In Malaysia! These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from friends and essay, other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility).
N.B: We have been able to in malaysia, generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $80,000 and soft loan from family members $20,000) and essay a mother, we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $150,000 from our bank. All the papers and writing in malaysia, document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. Mobile DJ Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in thesis, the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and essay writing contest in malaysia, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and proposal, the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from essay contest in malaysia a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of on being a mother starting Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the essay writing, need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the engineer resume, ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to offer our disc jockey and musical equipment rental services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while. Essay! Mickey May DJ® Services, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at david thesis the top burner. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more.
We know that if that is contest, put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in essay, the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for contest in malaysia business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing office facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of an opinion The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the writing contest, needed musical gadgets and speakers, electronic appliances, office appliances and is capitalism dead contest, music recording and mixing accessories: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with key players in the industry and event / party planners et al: In Progress.
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odyssey hubris essay In William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature , New York: W. W. Writing In Malaysia? Norton Co., 1995, 69-90. The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to mine engineer resume, many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenetindeed, a passionof the environmental movement, especially in the United States. For many Americans wilderness stands as the last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the earth. It is an island in the polluted sea of urban-industrial modernity, the one place we can turn for essay, escape from engineer our own too-muchness. Seen in this way, wilderness presents itself as the best antidote to our human selves, a refuge we must somehow recover if we hope to save the essay writing contest planet. As Henry David Thoreau once famously declared, “In Wildness is the preservation of the World.” (1) But is essay it? The more one knows of its peculiar history, the more one realizes that wilderness is not quite what it seems.
Far from being the one place on earth that stands apart from humanity, it is quite profoundly a human creationindeed, the creation of very particular human cultures at very particular moments in human history. It is not a pristine sanctuary where the last remnant of an untouched, endangered, but still transcendent nature can for at least a little while longer be encountered without the writing contaminating taint of civilization. Instead, it’s a product of that civilization, and and privacy argumentative could hardly be contaminated by the very stuff of which it is made. Wilderness hides its unnaturalness behind a mask that is all the more beguiling because it seems so natural. As we gaze into the mirror it holds up for us, we too easily imagine that what we behold is Nature when in fact we see the reflection of our own unexamined longings and desires. For this reason, we mistake ourselves when we suppose that wilderness can be the solution to essay writing in malaysia, our culture’s problematic relationships with the nonhuman world, for wilderness is itself no small part of the dead essay problem. To assert the essay contest unnaturalness of so natural a place will no doubt seem absurd or even perverse to many readers, so let me hasten to add that the nonhuman world we encounter in wilderness is mine resume far from being merely our own invention.
I celebrate with others who love wilderness the beauty and power of the things it contains. Each of us who has spent time there can conjure images and sensations that seem all the more hauntingly real for having engraved themselves so indelibly on our memories. Such memories may be uniquely our own, but they are also familiar enough be to be instantly recognizable to others. Remember this? The torrents of mist shoot out from the base of a great waterfall in essay writing in malaysia, the depths of a Sierra canyon, the tiny droplets cooling your face as you listen to the roar of the water and gaze up toward the sky through a rainbow that hovers just out of reach. Remember this too: looking out across a desert canyon in the evening air, the only sound a lone raven calling in the distance, the rock walls dropping away into a chasm so deep that its bottom all but vanishes as you squint into the amber light of the setting sun. And this: the moment beside the trail as you sit on an opinion a sandstone ledge, your boots damp with the morning dew while you take in the rich smell of the pines, and the small red foxor maybe for you it was a raccoon or a coyote or a deerthat suddenly ambles across your path, stopping for a long moment to essay contest, gaze in your direction with cautious indifference before continuing on its way.
Remember the feelings of such moments, and you will know as well as I do that you were in the presence of something irreducibly nonhuman, something profoundly Other than yourself Wilderness is made of that too. And yet: what brought each of us to the places where such memories became possible is entirely a cultural invention. Go back 250 years in American and david cline European history, and you do not find nearly so many people wandering around remote corners of the essay writing in malaysia planet looking for what today we would call “the wilderness experience.” As late as the eighteenth century, the most common usage of the word “wilderness” in the English language referred to landscapes that generally carried adjectives far different from the ones they attract today. To be a wilderness then was to be “deserted,” “savage,” “desolate,” “barren”in short, a “waste,” the word’s nearest synonym. Its connotations were anything but positive, and is capitalism essay the emotion one was most likely to feel in its presence was “bewilderment” or terror. (2) Many of the essay word’s strongest associations then were biblical, for essay, it is used over and over again in the King James Version to essay in malaysia, refer to security argumentative, places on the margins of civilization where it is all too easy to lose oneself in moral confusion and despair. Essay? The wilderness was where Moses had wandered with his people for forty years, and where they had nearly abandoned their God to engineer, worship a golden idol. (3) “For Pharaoh will say of the Children of essay writing Israel,” we read in Exodus, “They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.” (4) The wilderness was where Christ had struggled with the devil and is capitalism dead essay contest endured his temptations: “And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness. And he was there in the wilderness for forty days tempted of Satan; and writing contest in malaysia was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.” (5) The “delicious Paradise” of cline John Milton’s Eden was surrounded by “a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides /Access denied” to essay contest, all who sought entry.” When Adam and Eve were driven from that garden, the world they entered was a wilderness that only their labor and pain could redeem.
Wilderness, in short, was a place to which one came only against one’s will, and thesis always in essay, fear and trembling. Whatever value it might have arose solely from the possibility that it might be “reclaimed” and turned toward human endsplanted as a garden, say, or a city upon a hill. (7) In its raw state, it had little or nothing to offer civilized men and women. But by the end of the essay on being a mother nineteenth century, all this had changed. The wastelands that had once seemed worthless had for some people come to seem almost beyond price. That Thoreau in essay contest in malaysia, 1862 could declare wildness to be the preservation of the world suggests the sea change that was going on. Wilderness had once been the antithesis of all that was orderly and goodit had been the darkness, one might say, on the far side of the garden walland yet now it was frequently likened to Eden itself. When John Muir arrived in the Sierra Nevada in 1869, he would declare, “No description of Heaven that I have ever heard or read of seems half so fine.” (8) He was hardly alone in expressing such emotions.
One by mine engineer, one, various corners of the American map came to be designated as sites whose wild beauty was so spectacular that a growing number of citizens had to visit and see them for contest in malaysia, themselves. Niagara Falls was the first to undergo this transformation, but it was soon followed by the Catskills, the Adirondacks, Yosemite, Yellowstone, and others. Yosemite was deeded by the U. S. government to the state of California in 1864 as the nation’s first wildland park, and Yellowstone became the first true national park in 1872. (9) By the first decade of the go research twentieth century, in the single most famous episode in American conservation history, a national debate had exploded over whether the city of San Francisco should be permitted to augment its water supply by damming the Tuolumne River in essay, Hetch Hetchy valley, well within the boundaries of Yosemite National Park. The dam was eventually built, but what today seems no less significant is essay that so many people fought to prevent its completion. Even as the fight was being lost, Hetch Hetchy became the baffle cry of an essay writing, emerging movement to preserve wilderness. Fifty years earlier, such opposition would have been unthinkable. Few would have questioned the resume merits of essay “reclaiming” a wasteland like this in security cameras and privacy essay, order to writing, put it to go research proposal, human use. Now the defenders of Hetch Hetchy attracted widespread national attention by portraying such an act not as improvement or progress but as desecration and writing in malaysia vandalism.
Lest one doubt that the old biblical metaphors had been turned completely on engineer resume their heads, listen to contest in malaysia, John Muir attack the dam’s defenders. “Their arguments,” he wrote, “are curiously like those of the devil, devised for an opinion essay, the destruction of the first gardenso much of the very best Eden fruit going to waste; so much of the best Tuolumne water and essay writing contest in malaysia Tuolumne scenery going to waste.” (10) For Muir and the growing number of Americans who shared his views, Satan’s home had become God’s Own Temple. The sources of this rather astonishing transformation were many, but for argumentative essay, the purposes of contest in malaysia this essay they can be gathered under two broad headings: the sublime and the frontier. Of the two, the sublime is the older and more pervasive cultural construct, being one of the most important expressions of essay on being that broad transatlantic movement we today label as romanticism; the frontier is more peculiarly American, though it too had its European antecedents and parallels. The two converged to remake wilderness in their own image, freighting it with moral values and cultural symbols that it carries to this day. Indeed, it is essay writing not too much to say that the modern environmental movement is itself a grandchild of on being romanticism and post-frontier ideology, which is why it is writing in malaysia no accident that so much environmentalist discourse takes its bearings from the wilderness these intellectual movements helped create. Although wilderness may today seem to be just one environmental concern among many, it in fact serves as the foundation for a long list of other such concerns that on their face seem quite remote from it. That is why its influence is is capitalism essay contest so pervasive and, potentially, so insidious.
To gain such remarkable influence, the concept of wilderness had to essay writing in malaysia, become loaded with some of the deepest core values of the culture that created and idealized it: it had to dead essay contest, become sacred. This possibility had been present in wilderness even in essay writing, the days when it had been a place of spiritual danger and moral temptation. If Satan was there, then so was Christ, who had found angels as well as wild beasts during His sojourn in the desert. In the wilderness the boundaries between human and nonhuman, between natural and supernatural, had always seemed less certain than elsewhere. Essay? This was why the early Christian saints and mystics had often emulated Christ’s desert retreat as they sought to experience for themselves the visions and spiritual testing He had endured.
One might meet devils and essay in malaysia run the an opinion risk of losing one’s soul in such a place, but one might also meet God. For some that possibility was worth almost any price. By the eighteenth century this sense of the wilderness as a landscape where the supernatural lay just beneath the surface was expressed in contest in malaysia, the doctrine of the sublime, a word whose modern usage has been so watered down by commercial hype and tourist advertising that it retains only a dim echo of its former power. Proposal? (11) In the theories of Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant, William Gilpin, and others, sublime landscapes were those rare places on earth where one had more chance than elsewhere to glimpse the face of God. (12) Romantics had a clear notion of where one could be most sure of having this experience. Although God might, of essay writing in malaysia course, choose to show Himself anywhere, He would most often be found in those vast, powerful landscapes where one could not help feeling insignificant and being reminded of proposal one’s own mortality. Where were these sublime places?
The eighteenth century catalog of their locations feels very familiar, for we still see and value landscapes as it taught us to do. God was on the mountaintop, in the chasm, in the waterfall, in the thundercloud, in the rainbow, in the sunset. One has only to think of the sites that Americans chose for their first national parksYellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Rainier, Zionto realize that virtually all of them fit one or more of these categories. Less sublime landscapes simply did not appear worthy of such protection; not until the 1940s, for instance, would the first swamp be honored, in Everglades National Park, and to this day there is in malaysia no national park in the grasslands. (13) Among the best proofs that one had entered a sublime landscape was the emotion it evoked. For the early romantic writers and artists who first began to celebrate it, the sublime was far from being a pleasurable experience. The classic description is that of William Wordsworth as he recounted climbing the Alps and crossing the Simplon Pass in his autobiographical poem “The Prelude.” There, surrounded by crags and waterfalls, the a mother poet felt himself literally to be in essay writing, the presence of the divineand experienced an emotion remarkably close to terror: The immeasurable height.
Of woods decaying, never to essay, be decayed, The stationary blasts of writing waterfalls, And in the narrow rent at every turn. Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and forlorn, The torrents shooting from the clear blue sky,
The rocks that muttered close upon our ears, Black drizzling crags that spake by the way-side. As if a voice were in cline, them, the sick sight. And giddy prospect of the raving stream, The unfettered clouds and region of the Heavens, Tumult and peace, the darkness and the light. Were all like workings of one mind, the features. Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; Characters of the essay contest in malaysia great Apocalypse, The types and symbols of Eternity, Of first, and last, and midst, and david thesis without end. (14)
This was no casual stroll in the mountains, no simple sojourn in the gentle lap of essay nonhuman nature. What Wordsworth described was nothing less than a religious experience, akin to that of the Old Testament prophets as they conversed with their wrathful God. The symbols he detected in essay, this wilderness landscape were more supernatural than natural, and they inspired more awe and dismay than joy or pleasure. No mere mortal was meant to linger long in such a place, so it was with considerable relief that Wordsworth and his companion made their way back down from the peaks to the sheltering valleys. Lest you suspect that this view of the essay writing in malaysia sublime was limited to timid Europeans who lacked the American know-how for feeling at home in the wilderness, remember Henry David Thoreau’s 1846 climb of a mother Mount Katahdin, in Maine. Although Thoreau is regarded by many today as one of the great American celebrators of wilderness, his emotions about essay writing contest in malaysia, Katahdin were no less ambivalent than Wordsworth’s about the Alps. It was vast, Titanic, and is capitalism essay contest such as man never inhabits. Some part of the beholder, even some vital part, seems to escape through the loose grating of his ribs as he ascends.
He is more lone than you can imagine . Vast, Titanic, inhuman Nature has got him at disadvantage, caught him alone, and pilfers him of essay writing some of his divine faculty. She does not smile on him as in the plains. Proposal? She seems to in malaysia, say sternly, why came ye here before your time? This ground is not prepared for you. Is it not enough that I smile in the valleys? I have never made this soil for thy feet, this air for thy breathing, these rocks for thy neighbors.
I cannot pity nor fondle thee here, but forever relentlessly drive thee hence to where I am kind. Dead Essay Contest? Why seek me where I have not called thee, and writing contest in malaysia then complain because you find me but a stepmother? (15) This is and privacy essay surely not the way a modern backpacker or nature lover would describe Maine’s most famous mountain, but that is because Thoreau’s description owes as much to Wordsworth and other romantic contemporaries as to the rocks and clouds of Katahdin itself. His words took the physical mountain on which he stood and transmuted it into an icon of the sublime: a symbol of God’s presence on earth. The power and the glory of that icon were such that only a prophet might gaze on essay writing in malaysia it for long.
In effect, romantics like Thoreau joined Moses and the children of Israel in Exodus when “they looked toward the proposal wilderness, and behold, the writing contest glory of the Lord appeared in resume, the cloud.” (16) But even as it came to embody the contest awesome power of the sublime, wilderness was also being tamednot just by those who were building settlements in go research, its midst but also by those who most celebrated its inhuman beauty. By the second half of the writing contest in malaysia nineteenth century, the security cameras and privacy argumentative essay terrible awe that Wordsworth and Thoreau regarded as the in malaysia appropriately pious stance to adopt in cline, the presence of their mountaintop God was giving way to a much more comfortable, almost sentimental demeanor. As more and more tourists sought out the wilderness as a spectacle to be looked at essay, and enjoyed for engineer resume, its great beauty, the sublime in effect became domesticated. The wilderness was still sacred, but the religious sentiments it evoked were more those of a pleasant parish church than those of a grand cathedral or a harsh desert retreat. The writer who best captures this late romantic sense of a domesticated sublime is undoubtedly John Muir, whose descriptions of Yosemite and the Sierra Nevada reflect none of the essay contest in malaysia anxiety or terror one finds in earlier writers.
Here he is, for go research, instance, sketching on North Dome in Yosemite Valley: No pain here, no dull empty hours, no fear of the past, no fear of the essay writing in malaysia future. These blessed mountains are so compactly filled with God’s beauty, no petty personal hope or experience has room to be. Drinking this champagne water is pure pleasure, so is breathing the living air, and every movement of limbs is pleasure, while the mine engineer resume body seems to essay writing contest, feel beauty when exposed to essay on being a mother, it as it feels the campfire or sunshine, entering not by the eyes alone, but equally through all one’s flesh like radiant heat, making a passionate ecstatic pleasure glow not explainable. The emotions Muir describes in Yosemite could hardly be more different from Thoreau’s on Katahdin or Wordsworth’s on the Simplon Pass. Yet all three men are participating in the same cultural tradition and contributing to the same myththe mountain as cathedral. The three may differ in contest, the way they choose to express their pietyWordsworth favoring an awe-filled bewilderment, Thoreau a stern loneliness, Muir a welcome ecstasybut they agree completely about the church in which they prefer to worship. Dead Essay Contest? Muir’s closing words on writing contest North Dome diverge from his older contemporaries only in cline, mood, not in their ultimate content: Perched like a fly on this Yosemite dome, I gaze and sketch and bask, oftentimes settling down into dumb admiration without definite hope of ever learning much, yet with the longing, unresting effort that lies at the door of hope, humbly prostrate before the vast display of God’s power, and eager to offer self-denial and renunciation with eternal toil to in malaysia, learn any lesson in the divine manuscript. (17)
Muir’s “divine manuscript” and Wordsworth’s “Characters of the great Apocalypse” are in fact pages from the same holy book. The sublime wilderness had ceased to be place of a mother satanic temptation and become instead a sacred temple, much as it continues to be for those who love it today. But the romantic sublime was not the only cultural movement that helped transform wilderness into a sacred American icon during the nineteenth century. No less important was the powerful romantic attraction of primitivism, dating back at least to of that the best antidote to writing in malaysia, the ills of an overly refined and david thesis civilized modern world was a return to simpler, more primitive living. Writing In Malaysia? In the United States, this was embodied most strikingly in the national myth of the frontier. The historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote in 1893 the david classic academic statement of writing contest in malaysia this myth, but it had been part of david cline American cultural traditions for well over a century. As Turner described the process, easterners and European immigrants, in moving to the wild unsettled lands of the frontier, shed the essay trappings of civilization, rediscovered their primitive racial energies, reinvented direct democratic institutions, and by an opinion essay, reinfused themselves with a vigor, an independence, and essay writing in malaysia a creativity that the source of American democracy and engineer national character.
Seen in this way, wild country became a place not just of religious redemption but of national renewal, the quintessential location for experiencing what it meant to be an American. One of Turner’s most provocative claims was that by the 1890s the essay contest in malaysia frontier was passing away. Mine Engineer? Never again would “such gifts of free land offer themselves” to the American people. “The frontier has gone,” he declared, “and with its going has closed the contest first period of American history.” (18) Built into the frontier myth from security and privacy argumentative its very beginning was the notion that this crucible of American identity was temporary and writing would pass away. Those who have celebrated the david frontier have almost always looked backward as they did so, mourning an older, simpler, truer world that is about to disappear, forever. That world and all of its attractions, Turner said, depended on free landon wilderness. Thus, in essay writing in malaysia, the myth of the vanishing frontier lay the essay on being a mother seeds of wilderness preservation in the United States, for writing contest, if wild land had been so crucial in the making of the nation, then surely one must save its last remnants as monuments to the American pastand as an mine, insurance policy to protect its future. It is no accident that the essay contest movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas began to and privacy argumentative essay, gain real momentum at precisely the time that laments about the passing frontier reached their peak. To protect wilderness was in contest in malaysia, a very real sense to protect the nation’s most sacred myth of origin. Among the core elements of the frontier myth was the powerful sense among certain groups of Americans that wilderness was the cline last bastion of writing in malaysia rugged individualism. Turner tended to stress communitarian themes when writing frontier history, asserting that Americans in primitive conditions had been forced to band together with their neighbors to form communities and democratic institutions.
For other writers, however, frontier democracy for david thesis, communities was less compelling than frontier freedom for individuals. (19) By fleeing to the outer margins of essay in malaysia settled land and societyso the david cline thesis story ranan individual could escape the confining strictures of civilized life. The mood among writers who celebrated frontier individualism was almost always nostalgic; they lamented not just a lost way of life but the passing of the heroic men who had embodied that life. Thus Owen Wister in the introduction to his classic 1902 novel The Virginian could write of “a vanished world” in which “the horseman, the essay cow-puncher, the last romantic figure upon our soil” rode only go research proposal “in his historic yesterday” and essay would “never come again.” For Wister, the cowboy was a man who gave his word and kept it (“Wall Street would have found him behind the mine times”), who did not talk lewdly to women (“Newport would have thought him old-fashioned”), who worked and contest played hard, and whose “ungoverned hours did not unman him.” (20) Theodore Roosevelt wrote with much the same nostalgic fervor about the “fine, manly qualities” of the “wild rough-rider of the plains.” No one could be more heroically masculine, thought Roosevelt, or more at home in the western wilderness: There he passes his days, there he does his life-work, there, when he meets death, he faces it as he has faced many other evils, with quiet, uncomplaining fortitude. Brave, hospitable, hardy, and adventurous, he is the grim pioneer of our race; he prepares the way for the civilization from before whose face he must himself disappear. Hard and dangerous though his existence is, it has yet a wild attraction that strongly draws to it his bold, free spirit. (21) This nostalgia for a passing frontier way of an opinion essay life inevitably implied ambivalence, if not downright hostility, toward modernity and all that it represented. If one saw the wild lands of the contest in malaysia frontier as freer, truer, and more natural than other, more modern places, then one was also inclined to see the cities and factories of urban-industrial civilization as confining, false, and artificial. Owen Wister looked at the post-frontier “transition” that had followed “the horseman of the engineer resume plains,” and essay contest in malaysia did not like what he saw: “a shapeless state, a condition of proposal men and manners as unlovely as is that moment in the year when winter is gone and spring not come, and the face of Nature is ugly.” (22) In the eyes of writers who shared Wister’s distaste for essay contest in malaysia, modernity, civilization contaminated its inhabitants and absorbed them into the faceless, collective, contemptible life of the crowd. For all of its troubles and dangers, and despite the fact that it must pass away, the frontier had been a better place. If civilization was to be redeemed, it would be by men like the Virginian who could retain their frontier virtues even as they made the transition to security cameras essay, post-frontier life.
The mythic frontier individualist was almost always masculine in gender: here, in essay writing contest, the wilderness, a man could be a real man, the rugged individual he was meant to be before civilization sapped his energy and an opinion threatened his masculinity. Wister’s contemptuous remarks about Wall Street and Newport suggest what he and many others of his generation believedthat the comforts and seductions of essay contest civilized life were especially insidious for men, who all too easily became emasculated by the feminizing tendencies of civilization. More often than not, men who felt this way came, like Wister and Roosevelt, from elite class backgrounds. The curious result was that frontier nostalgia became an important vehicle for expressing a peculiarly bourgeois form of antimodernism. The very men who most benefited from urban-industrial capitalism were among those who believed they must escape its debilitating effects. If the frontier was passing, then men who had the means to do so should preserve for themselves some remnant of its wild landscape so that they might enjoy the regeneration and is capitalism contest renewal that came from sleeping under the stars, participating in essay writing, blood sports, and living off the cline land. The frontier might be gone, but the frontier experience could still be had if only writing wilderness were preserved. Thus the decades following the Civil War saw more and more of the go research proposal nation’s wealthiest citizens seeking out wilderness for themselves. The elite passion for essay writing in malaysia, wild land took many forms: enormous estates in the Adirondacks and elsewhere (disingenuously called “camps” despite their many servants and amenities), cattle ranches for would-be rough riders on the Great Plains, guided big-game hunting trips in security argumentative, the Rockies, and essay writing luxurious resort hotels wherever railroads pushed their way into sublime landscapes. Wilderness suddenly emerged as the landscape of choice for elite tourists, who brought with them strikingly urban ideas of the countryside through which they traveled.
For them, wild land was not a site for productive labor and not a permanent home; rather, it was a place of recreation. One went to the wilderness not as a producer but as a consumer, hiring guides and other backcountry residents who could serve as romantic surrogates for david thesis, the rough riders and hunters of the frontier if one was willing to writing contest, overlook their new status as employees and servants of the rich. In just this way, wilderness came to embody the national frontier myth, standing for the wild freedom of America’s past and seeming to represent a highly attractive natural alternative to the ugly artificiality of essay modern civilization. Writing Contest In Malaysia? The irony, of cline thesis course, was that in the process wilderness came to reflect the very civilization its devotees sought to escape. Writing Contest In Malaysia? Ever since the nineteenth century, celebrating wilderness has been an activity mainly for well-to-do city folks. Country people generally know far too much about working the land to regard unworked land as their ideal. In contrast, elite urban tourists and wealthy sportsmen projected their leisure-time frontier fantasies onto a mother the American landscape and so created wilderness in in malaysia, their own image. There were other ironies as well, The movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas followed hard on the heels of the final Indian wars, in which the prior human inhabitants of these areas were rounded up and moved onto reservations. The myth of the wilderness as “virgin ” uninhabited land had always been especially cruel when seen from the perspective of the Indians who had once called that land home.
Now they were forced to move elsewhere, with the result that tourists could safely enjoy the illusion that they were seeing their nation in its pristine, original state, in the new morning of God’s own creation. (23) Among the is capitalism dead essay things that most marked the new national parks as reflecting a post-frontier consciousness was the relative absence of human violence within their boundaries. Contest? The actual frontier had often been a place of conflict, in which invaders and invaded fought for control of land and resources. Once set aside within the fixed and carefully policed boundaries of the modern bureaucratic state, the wilderness lost its savage image and cameras and privacy argumentative became safe: a place more of reverie than of revulsion or fear. Meanwhile, its original inhabitants were kept out by writing in malaysia, dint of force, their earlier uses of the on being a mother land redefined as inappropriate or even illegal. To this day, for instance, the Blackfeet continue to be accused of “poaching” on writing the lands of Glacier National Park that originally belonged to them and that were ceded by treaty only with the proviso that they be permitted to hunt there. (24)
The removal of mine engineer Indians to essay writing, create an “uninhabited wilderness”uninhabited as never before in the human history of the placereminds us just how invented, just how constructed, the cline American wilderness really is. To return to my opening argument: there is nothing natural about the concept of wilderness. It is entirely a creation of the culture that holds it dear, a product of the very history it seeks to deny. Indeed, one of the most striking proofs of the essay contest in malaysia cultural invention of wilderness is its thoroughgoing erasure of the history from essay on being a mother which it sprang. In virtually all of its manifestations, wilderness represents a flight from history. Seen as the original garden, it is a place outside of writing contest in malaysia time, from david cline thesis which human beings had to be ejected before the fallen world of history could properly begin.
Seen as the essay writing in malaysia frontier, it is a savage world at the dawn of civilization, whose transformation represents the very beginning of the national historical epic. Seen as the bold landscape of frontier heroism, it is the place of youth and childhood, into which men escape by abandoning their pasts and entering a world of freedom where the constraints of civilization fade into memory. Seen as the sacred sublime, it is the home of a God who transcends history by standing as the One who remains untouched and unchanged by time’s arrow. No matter what the angle from which we regard it, wilderness offers us the illusion that we can escape the cares and troubles of the essay on being world in which our past has ensnared us. (25) This escape from history is essay writing contest in malaysia one reason why the language we use to talk about wilderness is often permeated with spiritual and religious values that reflect human ideals far more than the an opinion material world of writing physical nature. An Opinion? Wilderness fulfills the old romantic project of secularizing Judeo-Christian values so as to essay in malaysia, make a new cathedral not in resume, some petty human building but in God’s own creation, Nature itself.
Many environmentalists who reject traditional notions of the Godhead and essay in malaysia who regard themselves as agnostics or even atheists nonetheless express feelings tantamount to religious awe when in the presence of essay on being wildernessa fact that testifies to essay writing, the success of the romantic project. Those who have no difficulty seeing God as the expression of our human dreams and desires nonetheless have trouble recognizing that in a secular age Nature can offer precisely the same sort of mirror. Thus it is that wilderness serves as the unexamined foundation on which so many of the engineer resume quasi-religious values of writing in malaysia modern environmentalism rest. The critique of modernity that is one of environmentalism’s most important contributions to the moral and political discourse of an opinion our time more often than not appeals, explicitly or implicitly, to wilderness as the essay writing contest in malaysia standard against which to cline, measure the failings of our human world. Writing In Malaysia? Wilderness is the natural, unfallen antithesis of an unnatural civilization that has lost its soul. It is a place of freedom in which we can recover the true selves we have lost to the corrupting influences of our artificial lives. David Thesis? Most of all, it is the ultimate landscape of authenticity. Combining the sacred grandeur of the sublime with the primitive simplicity of the writing contest in malaysia frontier, it is the place where we can see the world as it really is, and so know ourselves as we really areor ought to be.
But the trouble with wilderness is that it quietly expresses and reproduces the very values its devotees seek to security, reject. The flight from history that is very nearly the core of wilderness represents the false hope of an escape from responsibility, the illusion that we can somehow wipe clean the slate of our past and return to the tabula rasa that supposedly existed before we began to leave our marks on the world. The dream of an writing in malaysia, unworked natural landscape is very much the fantasy of people who have never themselves had to work the land to make a livingurban folk for whom food comes from a supermarket or a restaurant instead of a field, and for whom the cline thesis wooden houses in which they live and work apparently have no meaningful connection to essay writing contest, the forests in which trees grow and die. Only people whose relation to the land was already alienated could hold up wilderness as a model for human life in is capitalism dead, nature, for the romantic ideology of wilderness leaves precisely nowhere for human beings actually to make their living from the land. This, then, is the central paradox: wilderness embodies a dualistic vision in which the human is entirely outside the natural. If we allow ourselves to believe that nature, to be true, must also be wild, then our very presence in nature represents its fall. The place where we are is the place where nature is not. If this is soif by definition wilderness leaves no place for human beings, save perhaps as contemplative sojourners enjoying their leisurely reverie in God’s natural cathedralthen also by definition it can offer no solution to the environmental and essay in malaysia other problems that confront us.
To the go research extent that we celebrate wilderness as the essay writing measure with which we judge civilization, we reproduce the dualism that sets humanity and nature at an opinion, opposite poles. We thereby leave ourselves little hope of discovering what an ethical, sustainable, honorable human place in nature might actually look like. Worse: to the extent that we live in an urban-industrial civilization but at the same time pretend to ourselves that our real home is in the wilderness, to just that extent we give ourselves permission to evade responsibility for the lives we actually lead. We inhabit civilization while holding some part of ourselveswhat we imagine to be the most precious partaloof from its entanglements. We work our nine-to-five jobs in its institutions, we eat its food, we drive its cars (not least to reach the essay writing contest in malaysia wilderness), we benefit from the intricate and mine engineer resume all too invisible networks with which it shelters us, all the while pretending that these things are not an essay contest in malaysia, essential part of who we are. By imagining that our true home is in the wilderness, we forgive ourselves the homes we actually inhabit. An Opinion Essay? In its flight from essay writing contest in malaysia history, in contest, its siren song of essay in malaysia escape, in its reproduction of the dangerous dualism that sets human beings outside of naturein all of these ways, wilderness poses a serious threat to responsible environmentalism at the end of the cline thesis twentieth century. By now I hope it is clear that my criticism in this essay is essay writing contest in malaysia not directed at wild nature per se, or even at efforts to set aside large tracts of wild land, but rather at the specific habits of thinking that flow from this complex cultural construction called wilderness. It is not the things we label as wilderness that are the problemfor nonhuman nature and large tracts of the natural world do deserve protectionbut rather what we ourselves mean when we use the label.
Lest one doubt how pervasive these habits of thought actually are in contemporary environmentalism, let me list some of the places where wilderness serves as the ideological underpinning for contest, environmental concerns that might otherwise seem quite remote from it. Defenders of biological diversity, for instance, although sometimes appealing to essay contest, more utilitarian concerns, often point to “untouched” ecosystems as the best and richest repositories of the an opinion essay undiscovered species we must certainly try to protect. Although at contest in malaysia, first blush an apparently more “scientific” concept than wilderness, biological diversity in fact invokes many of the same sacred values, which is go research proposal why organizations like the Nature Conservancy have been so quick to employ it as an alternative to the seemingly fuzzier and essay contest in malaysia more problematic concept of is capitalism essay contest wilderness. There is a paradox here, of contest in malaysia course. To the extent that biological diversity (indeed, even wilderness itself) is likely to survive in is capitalism dead contest, the future only by writing in malaysia, the most vigilant and self-conscious management of the ecosystems that sustain it, the argumentative ideology of wilderness is potentially in direct conflict with the very thing it encourages us to protect. (26) The most striking instances of this have revolved around “endangered species,” which serve as vulnerable symbols of biological diversity while at the same time standing as surrogates for writing, wilderness itself. The terms of the Endangered Species Act in the United States have often meant that those hoping to engineer, defend pristine wilderness have had to essay writing in malaysia, rely on a single endangered species like the spotted owl to gain legal standing for their casethereby making the full power of the sacred land inhere in a single numinous organism whose habitat then becomes the object of intense debate about appropriate management and use. (27) The ease with which anti-environmental forces like the wise-use movement have attacked such single-species preservation efforts suggests the vulnerability of strategies like these. Perhaps partly because our own conflicts over such places and proposal organisms have become so messy, the convergence of wilderness values with concerns about essay writing contest in malaysia, biological diversity and endangered species has helped produce a deep fascination for essay a mother, remote ecosystems, where it is easier to essay contest in malaysia, imagine that nature might somehow be “left alone” to go research proposal, flourish by its own pristine devices.
The classic example is the tropical rain forest, which since the 1970s has become the most powerful modern icon of essay writing in malaysia unfallen, sacred landa veritable Garden of Edenfor many Americans and Europeans. And yet protecting the essay rain forest in the eyes of essay writing contest First World environmentalists all too often means protecting it from the people who live there. Those who seek to preserve such “wilderness” from the activities of native peoples run the cline thesis risk of reproducing the same tragedybeing forceably removed from an ancient homethat befell American Indians. Third World countries face massive environmental problems and deep social conflicts, but these are not likely to be solved by a cultural myth that encourages us to “preserve” peopleless landscapes that have not existed in such places for millennia. At its worst, as environmentalists are beginning to realize, exporting American notions of wilderness in this way can become an unthinking and essay in malaysia self-defeating form of cultural imperialism. (28)
Perhaps the most suggestive example of the way that wilderness thinking can underpin other environmental concerns has emerged in the recent debate about “global change.” In 1989 the journalist Bill McKibben published a book entitled The End of Nature, in which he argued that the prospect of is capitalism essay global climate change as a result of in malaysia unintentional human manipulation of the atmosphere means that nature as we once knew it no longer exists. (29) Whereas earlier generations inhabited a natural world that remained more or less unaffected by their actions, our own generation is uniquely different. Proposal? We and our children will henceforth live in a biosphere completely altered by our own activity, a planet in which the human and the natural can no longer be distinguished, because the one has overwhelmed the other. In McKibben’s view, nature has died, and we are responsible for killing it. “The planet,” he declares, “is utterly different now.” (30) But such a perspective is possible only if we accept the wilderness premise that nature, to writing, be natural, must also be pristineremote from humanity and untouched by essay, our common past. In fact, everything we know about environmental history suggests that people have been manipulating the natural world on various scales for as long as we have a record of their passing. Moreover, we have unassailable evidence that many of the environmental changes we now face also occurred quite apart from essay contest in malaysia human intervention at one time or another in the earth’s past. Dead Contest? (31) The point is essay not that our current problems are trivial, or that our devastating effects on the earth’s ecosystems should be accepted as inevitable or “natural.” It is rather that we seem unlikely to make much progress in solving these problems if we hold up to ourselves as the mirror of nature a wilderness we ourselves cannot inhabit. To do so is merely to take to a logical extreme the paradox that was built into essay wilderness from the beginning: if nature dies because we enter it, then the only way to essay writing contest in malaysia, save nature is to kill ourselves.
The absurdity of this proposition flows from the underlying dualism it expresses. Not only does it ascribe greater power to essay, humanity that we in fact possessphysical and biological nature will surely survive in writing contest in malaysia, some form or another long after we ourselves have gone the is capitalism dead contest way of all fleshbut in the end it offers us little more than a self-defeating counsel of despair. Writing Contest? The tautology gives us no way out: if wild nature is the only thing worth saving, and if our mere presence destroys it, then the sole solution to our own unnaturalness, the only way to protect sacred wilderness from profane humanity, would seem to be suicide. It is not a proposition that seems likely to produce very positive or practical results. And yet radical environmentalists and deep ecologists all too frequently come close to accepting this premise as a first principle. When they express, for instance, the popular notion that our environmental problems began with the invention of agriculture, they push the human fall from natural grace so far back into the past that all of civilized history becomes a tale of ecological declension. Earth First! founder Dave Foreman captures the familiar parable succinctly when he writes, Before agriculture was midwifed in the Middle East, humans were in the wilderness. We had no concept of “wilderness” because everything was wilderness and we were a part of an opinion it. But with irrigation ditches, crop surpluses, and permanent villages, we became apart from the natural world. Between the essay contest wilderness that created us and the civilization created by us grew an ever-widening rift. (32)
In this view the farm becomes the first and most important battlefield in the long war against wild nature, and mine engineer all else follows in its wake. From such a starting place, it is hard not to reach the essay writing contest conclusion that the security cameras only way human beings can hope to live naturally on earth is to follow the hunter-gatherers back into a wilderness Eden and writing contest in malaysia abandon virtually everything that civilization has given us. It may indeed turn out that civilization will end in ecological collapse or nuclear disaster, whereupon one might expect to find any human survivors returning to a way of life closer to that celebrated by Foreman and his followers. For most of us, though, such a debacle would be cause for regret, a sign that humanity had failed to fulfill its own promise and failed to security cameras essay, honor its own highest valuesincluding those of the deep ecologists. In offering wilderness as the ultimate hunter-gatherer alternative to civilization, Foreman reproduces an extreme but still easily recognizable version of the myth of frontier primitivism. Essay Writing? When he writes of his fellow Earth Firsters that “we believe we must return to being animal, to glorying in essay, our sweat, hormones, tears, and blood” and that “we struggle against the modern compulsion to become dull, passionless androids,” he is following in the footsteps of in malaysia Owen Wister. (33) Although his arguments give primacy to defending biodiversity and is capitalism dead essay the autonomy of wild nature, his prose becomes most passionate when he speaks of preserving “the wilderness experience.” His own ideal “Big Outside” bears an uncanny resemblance to that of the frontier myth: wide open spaces and writing virgin land with no trails, no signs, no facilities, no maps, no guides, no rescues, no modern equipment. Tellingly, it is engineer a land where hardy travelers can support themselves by hunting with “primitive weapons (bow and arrow, atlatl, knife, sharp rock).” (34) Foreman claims that “the primary value of wilderness is not as a proving ground for young Huck Finns and contest in malaysia Annie Oakleys,” but his heart is with Huck and Annie all the same. He admits that “preserving a quality wilderness experience for cline thesis, the human visitor, letting her or him flex Paleolithic muscles or seek visions, remains a tremendously important secondary purpose.” (35) Just so does Teddy Roosevelt’s rough rider live on in the essay contest in malaysia greener garb of a new age.
However much one may be attracted to proposal, such a vision, it entails problematic consequences. For one, it makes wilderness the locus for essay, an epic struggle between malign civilization and benign nature, compared with which all other social, political, and essay on being a mother moral concerns seem trivial. Foreman writes, “The preservation of wildness and native diversity is the most important issue. Issues directly affecting only humans pale in comparison.” (36) Presumably so do any environmental problems whose victims are mainly people, for such problems usually surface in landscapes that have already “fallen” and are no longer wild. This would seem to exclude from the radical environmentalist agenda problems of occupational health and safety in industrial settings, problems of toxic waste exposure on “unnatural” urban and agricultural sites, problems of in malaysia poor children poisoned by lead exposure in an opinion essay, the inner city, problems of famine and poverty and human suffering in the “overpopulated” places of the earthproblems, in short, of environmental justice.
If we set too high a stock on wilderness, too many other corners of the earth become less than natural and too many other people become less than human, thereby giving us permission not to care much about their suffering or their fate. It is no accident that these supposedly inconsequential environmental problems affect mainly poor people, for the long affiliation between wilderness and wealth means that the only poor people who count when wilderness is the issue are hunter-gatherers, who presumably do not consider themselves to be poor in the first place. The dualism at the heart of wilderness encourages its advocates to conceive of its protection as a crude conflict between the “human” and the “nonhuman”or, more often, between those who value the nonhuman and those who do not. This in writing, turn tempts one to ignore crucial differences among humans and the complex cultural and historical reasons why different peoples may feel very differently about the thesis meaning of wilderness. Why, for writing contest, instance, is the ” wilderness experience” so often conceived as a form of recreation best enjoyed by those whose class privileges give them the time and resources to leave their jobs behind and dead contest “get away from it all?” Why does the protection of wilderness so often seem to pit urban recreationists against rural people who actually earn their living from the land (excepting those who sell goods and services to the tourists themselves)?
Why in the debates about pristine natural areas are “primitive” peoples idealized, even sentimentalized, until the in malaysia moment they do something unprimitive, modern, and unnatural, and david cline thereby fall from essay environmental grace? What are the consequences of essay a wilderness ideology that devalues productive labor and essay writing contest the very concrete knowledge that comes from working the land with one’s own hands? (37) All of these questions imply conflicts among different groups of people, conflicts that are obscured behind the proposal deceptive clarity of “human” vs. “nonhuman.” If in answering these knotty questions we resort to so simplistic an opposition, we are almost certain to ignore the very subtleties and complexities we need to understand. But the most troubling cultural baggage that accompanies the essay writing contest celebration of wilderness has less to do with remote rain forests and peoples than with the ways we think about ourselveswe American environmentalists who quite rightly worry about the future of the earth and the threats we pose to the natural world. Idealizing a distant wilderness too often means not idealizing the environment in which we actually live, the landscape that for better or worse we call home. Most of our most serious environmental problems start right here, at home, and if we are to solve those problems, we need an environmental ethic that will tell us as much about using nature as about not using it. The wilderness dualism tends to cast any use as abuse, and thereby denies us a middle ground in which responsible use and non-use might attain some kind of david balanced, sustainable relationship. My own belief is that only by exploring this middle ground will we learn ways of imagining a better world for all of us: humans and nonhumans, rich people and poor, women and men, First Worlders and Third Worlders, white folks and people of essay contest in malaysia color, consumers and producersa world better for humanity in all of its diversity and for all the rest of security essay nature too. The middle ground is where we actually live. It is writing contest in malaysia where weall of us, in our different places and waysmake our homes. That is why, when I think of the times I myself have come closest to experiencing what I might call the david thesis sacred in nature, I often find myself remembering wild places much closer to home.
I think, for instance, of a small pond near my house where water bubbles up from limestone springs to feed a series of pools that rarely freeze in winter and so play home to waterfowl that stay here for writing, the protective warmth even on the coldest of winter days, gliding silently through streaming mists as the snow falls from gray February skies. I think of a November evening long ago when I found myself on a Wisconsin hilltop in rain and dense fog, only to have the setting sun break through the clouds to go research proposal, cast an otherworldly golden light on the misty farms and woodlands below, a scene so unexpected and joyous that I lingered past dusk so as not to miss any part of the essay writing in malaysia gift that had come my way. And I think perhaps most especially of the mine resume blown-out, bankrupt farm in the sand country of central Wisconsin where Aldo Leopold and his family tried one of the first American experiments in ecological restoration, turning ravaged and infertile soil into carefully tended ground where the human and the nonhuman could exist side by side in relative harmony. Writing In Malaysia? What I celebrate about such places is not just their wildness, though that certainly is among their most important qualities; what I celebrate even more is that they remind us of the wildness in our own backyards, of the nature that is proposal all around us if only we have eyes to see it. Indeed, my principal objection to wilderness is that it may teach us to essay writing contest, be dismissive or even contemptuous of such humble places and experiences. Without our quite realizing it, wilderness tends to privilege some parts of go research nature at the expense of others. Most of us, I suspect, still follow the conventions of the romantic sublime in finding the mountaintop more glorious than the essay writing in malaysia plains, the ancient forest nobler than the grasslands, the mighty canyon more inspiring than the humble marsh. Even John Muir, in essay, arguing against those who sought to dam his beloved Hetch Hetchy valley in the Sierra Nevada, argued for alternative dam sites in the gentler valleys of the foothillsa preference that had nothing to do with nature and everything with the cultural traditions of the sublime. (38) Just as problematically, our frontier traditions have encouraged Americans to define “true” wilderness as requiring very large tracts of roadless landwhat Dave Foreman calls “The Big Outside.” Leaving aside the legitimate empirical question in conservation biology of how large a tract of land must be before a given species can reproduce on it, the emphasis on big wilderness reflects a romantic frontier belief that one hasn’t really gotten away from essay in malaysia civilization unless one can go for days at a time without encountering another human being. By teaching us to fetishize sublime places and a mother wide open country, these peculiarly American ways of thinking about wilderness encourage us to adopt too high a standard for what counts as “natural.” If it isn’t hundreds of contest in malaysia square miles big, if it doesn’t give us God’s eye views or grand vistas, if it doesn’t permit us the an opinion illusion that we are alone on the planet, then it really isn’t natural.
It’s too small, too plain, or too crowded to be authentically wild. In critiquing wilderness as I have done in essay contest in malaysia, this essay, I’m forced to confront my own deep ambivalence about its meaning for modern environmentalism. On the one hand, one of my own most important environmental ethics is cameras and privacy essay that people should always be conscious that they are part of the natural world, inextricably tied to the ecological systems that sustain their lives. Any way of looking at writing, nature that encourages us to believe we are separate from natureas wilderness tends to dois likely to reinforce environmentally irresponsible behavior. Go Research? On the essay contest in malaysia other hand, I also think it no less crucial for us to recognize and an opinion honor nonhuman nature as a world we did not create, a world with its own independent, nonhuman reasons for being as it is.
The autonomy of nonhuman nature seems to me an indispensable corrective to human arrogance. Any way of looking at nature that helps us rememberas wilderness also tends to dothat the interests of people are not necessarily identical to those of essay contest in malaysia every other creature or of the earth itself is likely to foster responsible behavior. Go Research? To the extent that wilderness has served as an essay contest in malaysia, important vehicle for essay, articulating deep moral values regarding our obligations and responsibilities to essay writing contest in malaysia, the nonhuman world, I would not want to jettison the contributions it has made to essay contest, our culture’s ways of thinking about in malaysia, nature. If the core problem of wilderness is that it distances us too much from the david very things it teaches us to value, then the question we must ask is what it can tell us about home, the place where we actually live. How can we take the positive values we associate with wilderness and bring them closer to home? I think the answer to writing in malaysia, this question will come by proposal, broadening our sense of the otherness that wilderness seeks to define and protect. Writing? In reminding us of the is capitalism contest world we did not make, wilderness can teach profound feelings of humility and respect as we confront our fellow beings and the earth itself.
Feelings like these argue for the importance of self-awareness and self criticism as we exercise our own ability to transform the world around us, helping us set responsible limits to human masterywhich without such limits too easily becomes human hubris. Wilderness is the place where, symbolically at least, we try to in malaysia, withhold our power to dominate. Wallace Stegner once wrote of. the special human mark, the special record of human passage, that distinguishes man from all other species. It is engineer resume rare enough among men, impossible to any other form of life. It is simply the deliberate and chosen refusal to make any marks at all. We are the most dangerous species of life on the planet, and every other species, even the earth itself, has cause to fear our power to exterminate. But we are also the in malaysia only species which, when it chooses to do so, will go to great effort to save what it might destroy. (39) The myth of wilderness, which Stegner knowingly reproduces in these remarks, is that we can somehow leave nature untouched by essay, our passage. By now it should be clear that this for the most part is an illusion.
But Stegner’s deeper message then becomes all the more compelling. If living in history means that we cannot help leaving marks on a fallen world, then the dilemma we face is to decide what kinds of marks we wish to leave. It is just here that our cultural traditions of wilderness remain so important. In Malaysia? In the broadest sense, wilderness teaches us to ask whether the an opinion essay Other must always bend to our will, and, if not, under what circumstances it should be allowed to flourish without our intervention. This is surely a question worth asking about everything we do, and not just about the essay in malaysia natural world. When we visit a wilderness area, we find ourselves surrounded by plants and security argumentative animals and physical landscapes whose otherness compels our attention. In forcing us to contest in malaysia, acknowledge that they are not of our making, that they have little or no need of our continued existence, they recall for us a creation far greater than our own. In the wilderness, we need no reminder that a tree has its own reasons for being, quite apart from us. On Being? The same is less true in the gardens we plant and tend ourselves: there it is far easier to forget the otherness of the tree. (40) Indeed, one could almost measure wilderness by the extent to which our recognition of essay in malaysia its otherness requires a conscious, willed act on our part.
The romantic legacy means that wilderness is david more a state of mind than a fact of nature, and the state of mind that today most defines wilderness is wonder. The striking power of the wild is writing contest that wonder in the face of it requires no act of will, but forces itself upon mine engineer, usas an expression of the nonhuman world experienced through the lens of essay in malaysia our cultural historyas proof that ours is go research not the only presence in the universe. Wilderness gets us into trouble only if we imagine that this experience of wonder and otherness is limited to the remote corners of the planet, or that it somehow depends on pristine landscapes we ourselves do not inhabit. Nothing could be more misleading. The tree in writing, the garden is in reality no less other, no less worthy of our wonder and respect, than the tree in an ancient forest that has never known an ax or a saweven though the tree in the forest reflects a more intricate web of ecological relationships. Mine Resume? The tree in the garden could easily have sprung from the same seed as the tree in the forest, and we can claim only its location and perhaps its form as our own. Both trees stand apart from us; both share our common world. Writing Contest? The special power of the tree in engineer resume, the wilderness is to remind us of this fact. It can teach us to essay writing contest, recognize the wildness we did not see in the tree we planted in our own backyard. Essay On Being A Mother? By seeing the writing contest in malaysia otherness in essay, that which is writing contest most unfamiliar, we can learn to see it too in that which at first seemed merely ordinary. If wilderness can do thisif it can help us perceive and respect a nature we had forgotten to recognize as naturalthen it will become part of the security cameras essay solution to our environmental dilemmas rather than part of the problem.
This will only happen, however, if we abandon the dualism that sees the tree in the garden as artificialcompletely fallen and unnaturaland the tree in the wilderness as naturalcompletely pristine and wild. Both trees in some ultimate sense are wild; both in a practical sense now depend on writing in malaysia our management and is capitalism essay care. We are responsible for both, even though we can claim credit for neither. Writing Contest? Our challenge is to stop thinking of go research such things according to set of contest in malaysia bipolar moral scales in which the human and the nonhuman, the on being unnatural and the natural, the fallen and the unfallen, serve as our conceptual map for understanding and valuing the world. Instead, we need to embrace the full continuum of a natural landscape that is writing contest in malaysia also cultural, in which the city, the suburb, the pastoral, and david thesis the wild each has its proper place, which we permit ourselves to celebrate without needlessly denigrating the others. Essay Writing Contest? We need to honor the is capitalism essay Other within and the Other next door as much as we do the exotic Other that lives far awaya lesson that applies as much to people as it does to (other) natural things. In particular, we need to discover a common middle ground in which all of these things, from the city to the wilderness, can somehow be encompassed in the word “home.” Home, after all, is the place where finally we make our living. It is the place for which we take responsibility, the place we try to sustain so we can pass on essay in malaysia what is best in it (and in ourselves) to resume, our children. (41) The task of making a home in nature is contest what Wendell Berry has called “the forever unfinished lifework of our species.” “The only thing we have to preserve nature with” he writes, “is culture; the only thing we have to mine, preserve wildness with is domesticity.” (42) Calling a place home inevitably means that we will use the nature we find in it, for there can be no escape from manipulating and working and even killing some parts of nature to make our home.
But if we acknowledge the autonomy and otherness of the things and creatures around usan autonomy our culture has taught us to label with the word “wild”then we will at least think carefully about the in malaysia uses to which we put them, and even ask if we should use them at all. Dead Essay Contest? just so can we still join Thoreau in in malaysia, declaring that “in Wildness is the an opinion preservation of the World,” for wildness (as opposed to wilderness) can be found anywhere: in the seemingly tame fields and woodlots of Massachusetts, in writing contest in malaysia, the cracks of a Manhattan sidewalk, even in the cells of essay a mother our own bodies. As Gary Snyder has wisely said, “A person with a clear heart and open mind can experience the wilderness anywhere on earth. It is a quality of one’s own consciousness. The planet is essay in malaysia a wild place and always will be.” (43) To think ourselves capable of causing “the end of nature” is an act of essay great hubris, for it means forgetting the wildness that dwells everywhere within and around us. Learning to honor the in malaysia wildlearning to remember and acknowledge the autonomy of the othermeans striving for critical self-consciousness in dead essay contest, all of our actions. It means the essay contest in malaysia deep reflection and respect must accompany each act of use, and means too that we must always consider the possibility of non-use.
It means looking at security cameras and privacy argumentative essay, the part of essay contest in malaysia nature we intend to turn toward our own ends and asking whether we can use it again and again and mine againsustainablywithout its being diminished in the process. It means never imagining that we can flee into a mythical wilderness to escape history and the obligation to take responsibility for essay contest, our own actions that history inescapably entails. Most of all, it means practicing remembrance and gratitude, for security and privacy argumentative essay, thanksgiving is the simplest and most basic of ways for us to recollect the nature, the culture, and the history that have come together to make the world as we know it. Writing In Malaysia? If wildness can stop being (just) out there and start being (also) in here, if it can start being as humane as it is natural, then perhaps we can get on with the essay on being a mother unending task of essay contest in malaysia struggling to essay, live rightly in the worldnot just in the garden, not just in essay in malaysia, the wilderness, but in the home that encompasses them both. 1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” The Works of Thoreau, ed. Henry S. Canby (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1937), p. 672. 2. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. Engineer? “wilderness”; see also Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 3rd ed. Writing? (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Proposal? Press, 1982), pp. 1-22; and Max Oelsehlaeger, The Idea of writing contest in malaysia Wilderness: From Prehistory to on being, the Age of Ecology (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ.
Press, 1991). 3. Exodus 32:1-35, KJV. 4. Exodus 14:3, KJV. 5. Mark 1:12-13, KJV; see also Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13. 6. John Milton, “Paradise Lost,” John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. Merritt Y. Hughes (New York: Odyssey Press, 1957), pp. 280-81, lines 131-42. 7. I have discussed this theme at length in “Landscapes of essay in malaysia Abundance and Scarcity,” in Clyde Milner et al., eds., Oxford History of the American West (New York: Oxford Univ.
Press, 1994), pp. 603-37. The classic work on an opinion essay the Puritan “city on contest in malaysia a hill” in colonial New England is a mother Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Writing? Press, 1956). 8. John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra (1911), reprinted in John Muir: The Eight Wilderness Discovery Books (London, England: Diadem; Seattle, Washington: Mountaineers, 1992), P. 211. 9. Alfred Route, National Parks: The American Experience, 2nd ed. (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1987) 10. John Muir, The Yosemite (1912), reprinted in John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, P. 715.
11. Go Research? Scholarly work on the sublime is extensive. Among the most important studies are Samuel Monk, The Sublime: A Study of Critical Theories in XVIII-Century England (New York: Modern Language Association, 1935); Basil Willey, The Eighteenth-Century Background: Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period (London, England: Chattus and Windus, 1949); Marjorie Hope Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the essay contest in malaysia Infinite (Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ. Press, 1959); Thomas Weiskel, The Romantic Sublime: Studies in the Structure and Psychology of Transcendence (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkin.s Univ. Press, 1976); Barbara Novak, Nature and thesis Culture: American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, ig8o). 12. Essay Writing Contest In Malaysia? The classic works are Immanuel Kant, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764), trans.
John T. Goldthwait (Berkeley: Univ. of an opinion California Press, 196o); Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, ed. Essay Writing? James T. Boulton (1958; Notre Dame, Indiana: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1968); William Gilpin, Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty; on Picturesque Travel; and on Sketching Landscape (London, England, 1803) 13. And Privacy Essay? See Ann Vileisis, “From Wastelands to Wetlands” (unpublished senior essay, Yale Univ., 1989); Route, National Parks. 14. William Wordsworth, “The Prelude,” bk. 6, in Thomas Hutchinson, ed., The Poetical Works of Wordsworth (London, England: Oxford Umv. Press, 1936), p. 536. 15. Henry David Thoreau, The Maine Woods (1864), in Henry David Thoreau (New York: Library of America, 1985), pp.
640-41. 16. Exodus 16:10, KJV. 17. Essay In Malaysia? John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra, p. 238. Part of the difference between these descriptions may reflect the landscapes the three authors were describing.
In his essay, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Kenneth Olwig notes that early American travelers experienced Yosemite as much through the aesthetic tropes of the pastoral as through those of the sublime. The ease with which Muir celebrated the gentle divinity of the Sierra Nevada had much to go research, do with the pastoral qualities of the landscape he described. See Olwig, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, ed. William Cronon (New York: W. Essay Writing? W. Norton CO, 1995), PP 379-408. 18. Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in essay, American History (New York: Henry Holt, 1920), pp. 37-38.
19. Richard Slotkin has made this observation the linchpin of his comparison between Turner and Theodore Roosevelt. See Slotkin, Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Atheneum, 1992), pp. Essay? 29-62. 20. Owen Wister, The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains (New York: Macmillan, 1902), pp. viii-ix. 21. On Being A Mother? Theodore Roosevelt, Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (1888; NewYork: Century, 1899), p. 100. 22.
Wister, Virginian, p. x. 23. On the essay in malaysia many problems with this view, see William M. Essay A Mother? Denevan, “The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (1992): 369-85. 24. Louis Warren, “The Hunter’s Came: Poachers, Conservationists, and Twentieth-Century America” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1994). 25. Essay In Malaysia? Wilderness also lies at on being, the foundation of the Clementsian ecological concept of the climax.
See Michael Barbour, “Ecological Fragmentation in the Fifties” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 233-55, and William Cronon, “Introduction: In Search of Nature,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 23-56. 26. On the many paradoxes of having to manage wilderness in essay writing contest, order to maintain the and privacy essay appearance of an unmanaged landscape, see John C. Hendee et al., Wilderness Management, USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1365 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978). 27. See James Proctor, “Whose Nature?: The Contested Moral Terrain of Ancient Forests,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. Essay Writing In Malaysia? 269-97.
28. See Candace Slater, “Amazonia as Edenic Narrative,” in engineer resume, Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 114-31. This argument has been powerfully made by Ramachandra Cuba, “Radical American Environmentalism: A Third World Critique,” Environmental Ethics 11 (1989): 71-83. 29. Bill McKibben, The End of essay Nature (New York: Random House, 1989). 30. McKibben, The End of Nature, p. 49. 31.
Even comparable extinction rates have occurred before, though we surely would not want to emulate the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary extinctions as a model for responsible manipulation of the go research biosphere! 32. Dave Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior (New York: Harmony Books, 1991, p. 69 (italics in original). For a sampling of other writings by followers of deep ecology and/or Earth First!, see Michael Tobias, ed., Deep Ecology (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1984); Bill Devall and George Sessions, Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1985); Michael Tobias, After Eden: History, Ecology, and essay writing contest Conscience (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1985); Dave Foreman and Bill Haywood, eds., Ecodefense: A Field Guide to an opinion essay, Monkey Wrenching, 2nd ed. (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1987); Bill Devall, Simple in Means, Rich in writing contest, Ends: Practicing Deep Ecology (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1988); Steve Chase, ed., Defending the Earth: A Dialogue between Murray Bookchin Dave Foreman (Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press, 1991); John Davis, ed., The Earth First, Reader. Ten Years of Radical Environmentalism (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1991); Bill Devall, Living Richly in mine, an Age of Limits: Using Deep Ecology for writing contest in malaysia, an Abundant Life (Salt Lake, City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1993); Michael E. Zimmerman ct al., eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1993). A useful survey of the different factions of radical environmentalism can be found in Carolyn Merchant, Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World (New York: Routledge, 1992). For a very interesting critique of this literature (first published in mine, the anarchist newspaper Fifth Estate), see George Bradford, How Deep is Deep Ecology? (Ojai, California: Times Change Press, 1989). 33.
Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. 34. 34. Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, p. 65. See also Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke, The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the Big Wilderness Areas of the contest U.S. Essay Contest? (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1989). 35. Foreman, Confessions of an essay writing contest, Eco-Warrior, p. Is Capitalism Dead Essay? 63. 36. Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. 27. 37.
See Richard White, ”’Are You an Environmentalist or Do You Work for essay writing contest, a Living?’: Work and Nature,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 171-85. Compare its analysis of cline thesis environmental knowledge through work with Jennifer Price’s analysis of environmental knowledge through consumption. It is not much of an writing contest, exaggeration to say that the wilderness experience is essentially consumerist in its impulses. 38. Compare with Muir, Yosemite, in david, John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, p. 714. 39. Writing Contest In Malaysia? Wallace Stegner, ed., This Is Dinosaur: Echo Park Country and Its Magic Rivers (New York: Knopf, 1955), P. 17 (italics in original). 40. Katherine Hayles helped me see the importance of this argument. 41.
Analogous arguments can be found in John Brinckerhoff Jackson, “Beyond Wilderness,” A Sense of Place, a Sense of Time (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. An Opinion Essay? Press, 1994), pp. 71-91, and in the wonderful collection of essays by Michael Pollan, Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991). 42. Wendell Berry, Home Economics (San Francisco, California: North Point, 1987), pp. 138, 143. 43. Gary Snyder, quoted in New York Times, “Week in essay, Review,” 18 September 1994, p. 6. Excerpted from Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, edited by William Cronon. Copyright 1995 by William Cronon.
Reprinted with permission of the publisher, W. W. Norton Company, Inc. Copyright William Cronon. (Please do not reprint without permission; links to this website are fine.)
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Administrative Assistant Resume Template. Writing In Malaysia? Administrative Assistant Resume. Candidates seeking a job as an administrative assistant have a reason to cheer, since the openings for this occupation are expected to rise in the next few years. If you are keen on essay a mother reaping benefits from this opportunity and making a career as an contest, administrative assistant, then here is an administrative assistant resume template to help you in your endeavors. Essay? As organizations expand in in malaysia, their business operations, there is an security cameras and privacy argumentative, increased possibility of chaos and miscommunication. Hence, a strong leadership is required at the top to ensure all activities proceed consistently with the plans. This responsibility is shouldered by the administration department of an essay writing contest, organization. An administrative assistant plays a pivotal role in supporting the administration department of the organization. Now a days, an and privacy argumentative essay, administrative assistant performs lesser number of clerical tasks. His role has evolved into that of a communications manager. He is essay writing contest in malaysia expected to disseminate information via emails, websites, and telephone to ensure the information reaches the right recipient at cline thesis, the right time.
Also, maintaining confidentiality within the business proceedings comes under his responsibilities. Additionally, he is responsible for planning meetings, scheduling appointments, and in malaysia, maintaining files. Requirements of Ideal Administrative Assistant Resume Template. In order to get a job of an administrative assistant, your resume shall reflect the necessary attributes. These essential attributes include an accurate summary of credentials, educational details, and job experience. It's always advisable to mention your achievements, career interests, and key skills in order to keep your resume updated with ongoing tasks. We have mentioned here a few key factors that must be reflected in an administrative resume. Adopt a reverse chronological order for your resume. Describe your job profile in reverse chronological order, mentioning the current job first.
These shall be followed by other jobs done previously. Mention your primary responsibilities at engineer, the top, followed by essay writing contest the secondary responsibilities. Remember to is capitalism dead contest, enlist all the major job responsibilities handled by you in your previous organizations. Begin your resume with contact details and later add key skills, work experience, educational details, achievements and writing contest in malaysia, personal details. End the resume with references. Due to increasing use of technology in is capitalism dead essay, offices, it is essay in malaysia recommended that you mention your computer skills explicitly. As the use of computers has become indispensable, having good computer knowledge will surely add importance to your resume template. Highlight your proficiency in using business software and essay on being a mother, MS office tools. Every administrative professional is required to possess strong communication skills, competent organizational skills, and proficient coordination skills. Since all functions are managed centrally by the administration department, he is the first point of contact for all employees and associates; he is expected to be efficient at essay writing contest, these skills. An administrative professional is required to have knowledge in various departments of a business - marketing, finance, human resource, production, sales, etc.
Draft a resume that highlights your proficiency over all these areas and engineer resume, proves you as a wise administrator. Additionally, present a brief overview of your knowledge in the field where your organization works. The career objective of an administrative professional must reflect his willingness to writing contest, lead and manage the work of the organization as a whole. It must highlight his ability to coordinate work that is spread over several departments and ensure consistency in performance. Convey how your abilities will prove beneficial in improving work productivity and reducing wastages of resources. Go Research Proposal? This administrative assistant resume template attempts at giving tips and writing, guidelines to job seekers for go research proposal drafting their resume. We hope that with the help of these tips, you are you are able to essay in malaysia, draft an impressive resume and attain your dream job. Sample Administrative Assistant Resume Template 1. An Administrative Resume needs to highlight your interpersonal and communication skills effectively that can win you can an interview call. Below is the on being a mother attention-grabbing sample resume for the post of an administrative assistant.
421 Main Street, Cell : (098) 9365551235. Writing Contest? Seeking a challenging post as an cameras, administrative assistant in a reputed organization, that will utilize my skills and enhance my capabilities further. Skills Strong interpersonal organizational skills Excellent knowledge office etiquette and phone manner Computer proficiency in Ms-Word, Excel, PowerPoint, office and Windows operating systems Typing speed: 80wpm. Writing Contest? ABC Pharmaceuticals , Los Angeles, CA Coordinating meetings, events and travel arrangements of top officials Developing computerized database of customers Typing company's corporate presentations, correspondence and annual reports Trained new employees with latest office technology. XYZ Chamber of Commerce , Chicago, IL Organized Annual meetings and conferences Responsible for typing all company correspondence Played a key role in david cline, production of essay in malaysia company's monthly newsletter Answered phone queries of customers and clients.
Social Policy and Social Politics University of Calfornia, Los Angeles. Sample Administrative Assistant Resume 2. Here is the sample of an cameras argumentative essay, Administrative assistant resume that will give you a fair idea about essay, creating an on being a mother, effective resume. A high impact resume is your first step to impress the prospective employer, thereby securing you a interview call. Amy Wilson 205, North Street, Johnson City, Administrative Assistant Strong written oral communication skills, interpersonal and organizational skills with proven capability to multi-task. PQR Systems Pvt ltd , Asheville - $1.5 billion Annual Sales.
Held positions of high responsibility for this automotive ancillary company with clients in Boston, Los Angeles and Washington. Providing administrative support to various departments head and prepare direct reports Coordinating on site and off-site meetings of delegates and administrative heads Maintain machinery tracking records, and manage direct vendor relations Plan and organize various corporate agendas, events and travel arrangements. Administrative Assistant/ Word processor. Worked as document management support and prepared numerous corporate presentations, financial spreadsheets and organizational charts Actively supported strategic planning and document preparation activities Played a key role in essay writing contest, shift from DOS platform to LAN platform and useful Ms-office modules. Computer Skills Computer proficiencies include Microsoft word, Excel, PowerPoint, Office, Adobe Photoshop, CorelDraw, HTML, Internet browsing capabilities. Education University of Auburn.
Coursework in Business Administration , Auburn, Alabama.
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case study on asthma Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of essay writing contest in malaysia, Medicine. Chapter VIII.2. Asthma. Return to Table of Contents. A three year old comes in with a complaint of coughing for 2 weeks.
Coughing is present every night. He has also had a mild fever, but his temperature has not been measured at home. His parents have been using a decongestant/antihistamine syrup and albuterol syrup which were left over from a sibling. Initially the cough improved but it worsened over the next 2 days. He is noted to have morning sneezing and nasal congestion. There are colds going around the an opinion essay pre-school. He has had similar episodes in essay, the past, but this episode is worse. He has no known allergies to foods or medications. His past history is notable for eczema and dry skin since infancy. He is otherwise healthy and he is fully immunized.
His family history is notable for proposal a brother who has asthma. In his home environment, there are no smokers or pets. Exam: VS T 38.1, P 100, RR 24, BP 85/65, oxygen saturation 99% in contest, room air. He is go research, alert and cooperative in writing contest in malaysia, minimal distress if any. His eyes are clear, nasal mucosa is boggy with clear discharge, and his pharynx has moderate lymphoid hypertrophy. He has multiple small lymph nodes palpable in his upper neck. His chest has an increased AP diameter and it is tympanitic (hyperresonant) to essay, percussion.
Rhonchi and writing in malaysia occasional wheezes are heard on auscultation, but there are no retractions. Heart is in a regular rhythm and no murmurs are heard. His skin is dry, but not flaky, inflamed or thickened. He is go research, initially felt to have moderately persistent asthma and possible asthmatic bronchitis. He is initially treated with nebulized albuterol and contest in malaysia nebulized corticosteroids for bronchospasm and bronchial inflammation. He is also treated with an antihistamine at proposal, night to reduce his morning allergy symptoms. In follow-up, his cough does not improve and he is still having fever (T 38.2C, 101.0F). A chest X-ray is obtained, but no radiographic evidence of pneumonia is essay writing in malaysia, present. His cough persists, but only with exercise and drinking cold juice.
His chest now sounds clear in the office. After one week of no night cough, his nebulized albuterol+corticosteroid is reduced to 2 times a day. His exercise induced cough gradually resolves. His nebulized corticosteroid is replaced with nebulized cromolyn twice a day and oral montelukast (a leukotriene inhibitor) is added. He enrolls in a soccer league and plays with minimal coughing. His routine nebulized albuterol+cromolyn is stopped and is used only mine engineer resume pre-exercise to prevent exercise induced bronchospasm. No cough is observed at night or with exercise. He is continued on nightly antihistamines, pre-exercise albuterol+cromolyn nebs, and once daily montelukast. He is given an asthma treatment plan which gives his parents clear instructions on essay writing, which medications to start based on his symptoms and severity. Asthma is by far, the most frequent respiratory diagnosis for children admitted to essay on being, hospitals.
It causes 5000 deaths annually in essay contest in malaysia, the United States despite the availability of excellent medications. Historically, asthma was characterized as a psychological illness, a surgical illness treated by removal of the carotid body, an environmental illness aggravated by air pollution, and david cline an allergic illness or infectious illness. In Malaysia? An allergy role in asthma, was legitimized by the discovery of IgE in go research, 1965. Since then, inflammation has been identified as the primary pathologic process in chronic asthma. Because of the variety of asthma triggers, such as exercise, exposure to smoke, weather changes, and allergies, asthma is essay, now considered to be a syndrome consisting of bronchospasm, airway hyperirritability, and inflammation. Essay? The popular term ROAD (reversible obstructed airways disease) or RAD (reversible airway disease) is not entirely accurate since this is only part of the disease process and reversibility may not always be evident. This is because obstruction of the airways may be secondary to essay contest in malaysia, mucous plugging or inflammatory changes decreasing the caliber of the airways, in which case, beta-2 bronchodilators are ineffective. Currently the NIH Guidelines (1) have served as a standard for diagnosing and go research proposal treating asthma.
NIH guidelines provide: 1) An objective means of measuring asthma via the peak flow meter. 2) A way of writing in malaysia, objectively categorizing severity classes of patients based on symptoms and/or peak flow measurements. 3) A comprehensive pharmacologic plan primarily designed to treat inflammation, inclusive of provisions for acute and maintenance care, for each severity level. David Thesis? 4) For the identification and removal of (or control of exposure to) known triggers. 5) The direction for forming a partnership with the physician who uses education as a primary basis of this relationship. The realization that IgE existed and could be found in allergic individuals propelled the essay writing contest field of allergy and understanding of asthma into a renaissance of elucidating the actual pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Asthma is now understood to be a chronic inflammatory disease condition with periodic exacerbations. This is in contrast to viewing asthma as a purely bronchospastic condition. An acute asthma exacerbation is a biphasic process.
Understanding the inflammatory process of asthma came about when it was observed that 4 to 8 hours following allergen exposure, wheezing would occur that was not responsive (or less responsive) to beta agonists but it was ablated by cromolyn and corticosteroids. However, beta agonists could easily neutralize the immediate reaction, occurring within minutes of the allergen exposure. This created a picture of a biphasic reaction to allergen (or infection) induced wheezing. The first phase was described as the immediate (bronchospastic) phase and the second phase as the late phase inflammatory response. In the early phase of security and privacy argumentative, allergic inflammation, preformed mediators such as histamine and rapidly formed mediators such as leukotrienes are released and cause bronchospasm. Other mediators signal the late phase inflammatory cells.
These cells (e.g., eosinophils) recruit other cells such as epithelial cells to participate in the resultant inflammatory damage of the airways and subepithelial structures. These events eventually result in extensive restructuring of the normal histology of the airways. This damage is not restored by beta-2 bronchodilators. Contest? An important immunologic occurrence is the activation of the Th2 helper cell, which is pivotal in the progression of the allergic immunologic process. The other helper designated Th1 cell does not enhance the allergic inflammatory process. Asthma, whatever the severity, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways.
The characteristic features of go research proposal, asthmatic inflammation are: mast cell activation, inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophils, macrophages, neutrophils (particularly in sudden-onset, fatal exacerbations), lymphocytes (TH2-like cells), edema, denudation and disruption of the bronchiolar epithelium, collagen deposition beneath the basement membrane (this is an contest, irreversible process), goblet cell hyperplasia, mucous hypersecretion, and smooth muscle thickening. The primary clinical components of asthma include: bronchospasm, inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity, increased mucous production, and end expiratory hyperinflation (air trapping). There are many presentations of asthma. Asthma is present 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It may not be in an easily identified form (i.e., there may be no obvious symptoms present). The most recognizable form is the acute episode in which the patient presents with acute shortness of breath. Depending on a mother, the underlying degree of inflammatory damage of the airways, the essay contest episode may have been festering with persistent cough and occasional bouts of shortness of breath for weeks. Failure to on being, attend to these soft signs of asthma in transition may lead to an acute case of status asthmaticus. Contest In Malaysia? Hence, paying attention to signs of silent asthma (asthma not in an acute phase), can prevent costly and life threatening consequences. Asthma may appear solely as an event associated with work or exercise.
Most asthma in childhood occurs as a result of david cline thesis, encounters with respiratory viruses. If the asthmatic is already unstable because of a poor maintenance regimen of the existing chronic asthma, the acute phase will begin simultaneously with the essay writing first signs of a cold. If the david cline thesis asthma is managed well, then the cough and wheezing may occur several days after cold symptoms. Hence, early recognition of contest in malaysia, asthma in transition is a major point of cooperation involving the essay a mother physician and patient. An asthma management plan should include a maintenance plan and provisions for acute onset wheezing. Asthma in contest in malaysia, its most manageable state, is outpatient asthma, as opposed to hospital status asthmaticus. For most medical professionals, the first and essay everlasting impression of essay contest, asthma is in an opinion, hospital status asthmaticus. By far, the more common situation is asthma outside the writing hospital, in its non-acute form. Therefore, it is highly desirable that medical professionals familiarize themselves with the other faces of asthma to facilitate diagnosis and treatment.
The type of david cline, medication used to treat asthma reflects the mechanism of airway obstruction: bronchospasm versus inflammation. This is an extremely simplified version of what really goes on and new pieces of the intricate mechanism are being uncovered. However from a pragmatic standpoint, the writing in malaysia logic for appropriate use of individual medications for asthma can be understood by recalling the biphasic reaction. Based on this brief description of the mechanism of asthma, it is now possible to cline thesis, create an asthma treatment program. Genetics aside, elimination of triggers and aggravators of asthma such as allergens, cigarette smoke, and writing contest in malaysia environmental and industrial pollutants, can prevent acute exacerbations of asthma and serve as the first line of defense. Conditions such as weather changes and respiratory infections fall outside of the readily controllable factors. Approach to Asthma. . . . . . 1. Diagnose asthma and classify severity. Identify aggravating and triggering conditions. . . . . . Essay A Mother? 2. Prepare an initial treatment plan to stabilize the acute condition. Instruct patient and parents on signs and symptoms which help to monitor the effectiveness of essay writing contest in malaysia, treatment.
If practical, treat other aggravating and co-morbid conditions concurrently. . . . . Security Cameras And Privacy Essay? . Writing? 3. When asthma is stable, proceed to a maintenance plan to allow healing of the damaged airways. This may take weeks to months. An Opinion Essay? Prepare an asthma action plan for in malaysia up-regulation of mine engineer, medications for unexpected exacerbations. . . Writing? . . . 4. When there are no signs of breakthrough cough or wheezing, indicating that the airway hyper-reactivity has subsided and david cline thesis is controlled, switch to a long term maintenance plan. This might be PRN use of bronchodilators, or pre-exercise use of preventive medications, or pulsing of medications for cold symptoms in short bursts. . . . . . 5. Monitor asthma with periodic evaluations and reminder messages of avoidance and check on patients' inhalation technique of medication administration. Inflammation in asthma contributes to: airway hyperresponsiveness, airflow limitation, respiratory symptoms, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, chest tightness, persistent symptoms, and pathologic damage, even when symptoms are not present. It is often thought that periodic control of essay in malaysia, acute symptoms is sufficient, but this is suboptimal. Utilization of chronic anti-inflammatory agents result in better long term outcomes for david cline all but the mildest asthmatics.
Co-morbid conditions such as allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, eczema, and gastroesophageal reflux have profound influence on contest in malaysia, asthma. Security Cameras? Their presence makes asthma extremely difficult to control. The main goal is to keep the patient functional and free of side effects from medications. With this approach, asthmatics have been able to participate in a normal life style. Asthma is more than an in malaysia, acute process. A large part of treating asthma successfully is to be able to recognize asthma in its early stages and to formulate an appropriate treatment plan before the thesis asthma advances to a critical stage. It is essay writing contest, simple to go research, diagnose asthma when the patient is wheezing, displaying intercostal retractions and turning pale or blue. Great clinical skill is contest in malaysia, required to make a diagnosis of asthma when sub-clinical and/or non-acute asthma is go research, present. A careful detailed history and physical exam are crucial to this end. Asthma is not the essay writing contest in malaysia acute episode of wheezing as popularly described in lay journals and essay magazines, but a chronic condition of the airways of the lungs which exhibits recurrent bronchospasm. These chronic symptoms may present itself as cough with exercise, cough with colds, cough with laughter, or cough at night.
A peak flow meter can consistently record airflow readings compared against normal values for sex and age. Signs of silent asthma (when no wheezing is heard) include: persistent cough at night, cough with exercise, cough with laughter, cough when consuming cold foods or drinks, prolonged cough following or accompanying a cold, feeling of tight chest or difficulty breathing. The peak flow measurement and FEV1 (forced expiratory volume over one second) are effort dependent measures. Full pulmonary function testing is desirable; however, the equipment is expensive compared to an inexpensive peak flow meter. Essay? The ultimate objective measurement for asthma is by body plethysmography (body box), which can measure the end expiratory residual lung volume as well as resistance to airflow. For those patients unable to perform peak flow measurements, clinical history is david cline, all you may have to base your conclusions. This includes a major group of younger asthmatics from essay contest infancy to david, 4 or 5 years old. Many children in writing contest, this age group are unable to reliably perform peak flow measurements. Often, patients will have no symptoms when brought to your examining room. The identification of the role of allergic diseases in asthma relies heavily on patient history.
Physicians trained to security argumentative essay, respond to record what they feel, see, and hear may have a problem forming conclusions based on history alone. Soft signs indicating that asthma is out of control include: frequent overt wheezing episodes, increasing frequency of using rescue medications (i.e., acute use of albuterol), a previously stable asthmatic now having signs of silent asthma, reduction or termination of activities, patient who had exposure to known trigger, persistent cough following bronchitis or pneumonia. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines, list as one of several key objectives, forming a partnership with the patient to writing, facilitate treatment of asthma. Good communication and availability to answer questions and argumentative concerns are basic to the partnership. Part of your efforts as the treating physician should be focused on getting the patient to essay contest in malaysia, respond in a logical manner to cope with changes in his/her clinical state. This is based on the patient understanding the principles of: triggers and aggravators, bronchodilation, inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity and healing. Patients must also understand mucous mobilization and david thesis signs and symptoms of asthma out of control which may lead to an acute asthma attack.
For example, should the in malaysia peak flow fall or cough increase, the patient is instructed to upgrade their medications according to a prearranged plan. As the acuteness of the situation resolves, the patient is advised to mine engineer resume, downgrade their medications back to their maintenance program. Should there be an unanticipated episode of wheezing, immediate activation of the action plan and consultation with the physician for additional treatment schemes is the next step. Essay Contest In Malaysia? This up and down regulation of essay on being, medications can be done without a physician visit. Phone calls, informing the physician's office of these maneuvers, are all that is in malaysia, normally required.
Obviously, recurrent wheezing episodes, even if reversed easily might indicate the presence of an unstable condition requiring an adjustment in the basic asthma management plan. Hence, the physician should be apprised of these changing conditions regularly. All asthma management plans should have common goals. Asthma management plans depend on resume, the severity of the asthmatic. Higher severity levels warrant greater use of corticosteroids and essay writing prophylactic medications such as leukotriene inhibitors and inhaled corticosteroids.
The NIH guidelines categorizes severity levels into steps as follows: Step 1 (mild intermittent): Day symptoms two days per week or less and night symptoms two nights per month or less. Chronic peak flow is 80% of david cline, expected or higher. Step 2 (mild persistent): Day symptoms greater than two times per week, but less than once per day or night symptoms greater than nights per contest month. Chronic peak flow is still 80% of expected or higher. Step 3 (moderate persistent): Day symptoms occur daily or night symptoms occur more than once per week. Chronic peak flow is 60% to 80% of expected value. Step 4 (severe persistent): Continual day symptoms or frequent night symptoms. Cline Thesis? Chronic peak flow is less than or equal to 60% of expected value. The use of peak flow in the above classification is essay in malaysia, not required in cameras essay, children 5 years and under. Peak flow data is useful but not required for classification in essay writing in malaysia, older age groups, but most children in this age range are capable of performing peak flows.
The major goal is to allow the child to express and achieve his or her maximum natural potential by not allowing the an opinion essay asthma to control him or her. Essay? This is a good way to david thesis, view the end point in essay writing contest, asthma management. Along the way, it is crucial to cradle the impressionable self image so that the child does not have a negative view of himself or herself. The very impressionable years are from about 3 to 10 years of dead essay contest, age, when children form their life-long mental image of essay writing, themselves. Discussions involving asthma management should, therefore, be handled cautiously with this in mind. Essay A Mother? Asthma should be viewed as a chronic illness which may continue to adulthood. In 1896 Solis-Cohen published, The use of adrenal substances in the treatment of essay writing contest in malaysia, asthma (adrenalin or epinephrine is a fast and potent bronchodilator). Epinephrine (most commonly administered subcutaneously, but it could be inhaled as well) was the first line of treatment for acute asthma from the 1950s through the 1970s and early 1980s.
In 1924 ephedrine was isolated from Ma Huang (a Chinese root extract). For the next forty years, ephedrine would be the mainstay for asthma treatment in the USA. Ephedrine in combination with theophylline, as products called Marax and Tedral, were used extensively in the same period. Interestingly, the ancient Chinese boiled the ephedra root in strong tea for their concoction to treat asthma. Security Cameras Argumentative? The tea contained theobromine, a methylxanthine.
Although methylxanthines such as theophylline are effective bronchodilators, they have been largely replaced by beta-2 agents (e.g., albuterol) which have a faster onset and less toxicity. Adding theophylline does not appear to acutely benefit most patients who are receiving high therapeutic doses of albuterol. Theophylline's main use is in long term chronic administration for more severe asthmatics. Essay In Malaysia? This change in an opinion, therapeutic approach from methylxanthines to beta-2 agents did not further our understanding of the true pathophysiology of asthma, as bronchodilation was the only target of treatment. Bronchodilators can be administered via several inhaled routes: metered dose inhaler (MDI), dry powder inhaler (DPI), nebulizer (Neb, also known as aerosol, updraft and wet nebulizer), parenteral IV, parenteral subcutaneous injection (SC), and orally (PO). In general, inhaled medications have a faster onset, greater potency and less side effects.
Bronchodilators Used in Asthma. A. Beta-2 Agonists: . . . albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil, also called salbutamol outside the essay writing contest in malaysia USA) - MDI, Neb, PO. . Dead Contest? . . L-albuterol (Xopenex - active isomer only) - Neb. . . . terbutaline - MDI, Neb, PO, SC. . . . formoterol (Foradil - very long acting) - DPI. . . . salmeterol (Serevent - used for essay writing in malaysia maintenance therapy) - DPI, MDI. . . . Is Capitalism Dead Essay Contest? epinephrine (alpha and beta) - MDI, Neb, SC. . . . ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) -MDI, Neb. . . Essay? . oxitropium bromide (Oxivent) - MDI.
. . . Engineer? aminophylline - PO, IV. . Essay Writing Contest In Malaysia? . . Is Capitalism Dead Essay Contest? theophylline - PO, IV. Other drugs with bronchodilator effects include ketamine, calcium channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine), and diuretics, however these drugs are not used routinely in acute asthma. Based on the biphasic mechanism, an essay in malaysia, anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., corticosteroids) is necessary for the complete treatment of asthma. Corticosteroids (steroids for short) can be administered systemically (PO, IM, IV) or inhaled (MDI, nebulizer, etc.).
For asthma of a chronic nature, such as allergic asthma to house dust, a daily regimen of a long acting bronchodilator coupled with a steroid by inhalation would be effective. Steroids take hours to become engaged in its active phase. Their action does not take place directly on the inflammatory tissue but by modulating DNA production of go research, pro-inflammatory cytokines. Their effects are very broad and writing contest in malaysia nonspecific. Steroids affect virtually every phase of the david thesis inflammatory process. They have an array of impressive and undesirable side-effects, which cause hesitation in their use by physicians as well as patients. As in the use of any medication or therapeutic agent, the employment of steroids is subject to weighing the writing contest desired effects against an opinion essay, the undesirable effects (benefit vs. risk).
If the positive effects of in malaysia, using steroids have an overwhelming advantage over not using the drug, then it is thesis, justified to essay in malaysia, be used on a regular basis. This especially applies to children where growth suppression (in the order of 0.5 to essay, 1.0 cm per year) is the major side effect of essay contest, chronic inhaled corticosteroids. Catch-up growth occurs in mine engineer resume, most instances, if the child's condition improves to the point at which inhaled corticosteroids are no longer needed. Many patients require more medications during the fall/winter/spring, and fewer medications during the summer. Occasional bursts of systemic corticosteroids have no significant long term side effects, but chronic or long term use of systemic steroids have major side effects (refer to essay contest, the chapter on corticosteroids). Corticosteroids used in Asthma. . . . beclomethasone (Beclovent, Vanceril) - inhaled. . . . triamcinolone (Azmacort) - inhaled, IM.
. . Go Research Proposal? . budesonide (Pulmicort) - inhaled. . . . fluticasone (Flovent) - inhaled. . . . flunisolide (AeroBid) - inhaled. . . . mometasone (Asmanex) - inhaled. . . . prednisolone (Pediapred, Prelone, Orapred) - PO. . Writing? . . Proposal? methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solumedrol) - PO, IV. . . . dexamethasone (Decadron) - PO, IV.
In addition, one might consider adding a leukotriene inhibitor, also called leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA). These leukotriene inhibitors were developed to counteract the all important late phase inflammatory reaction caused by SRS-A (slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis), a compound which was eventually identified as leukotrienes. Their side effects are minimal. These are all given orally. Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) *(Some sources spell the suffix as leukast instead of lukast. Roche and Astra Zeneca spell it as lukast.) Cromolyn type drugs stabilize mast cells (inhibit mast cell degranulation). They have less potent anti-inflammatory properties, but they have minimal side effects. Cromolyn (Intal) is available via nebulizer and MDI. Nedocromil (Tilade) is available via MDI.
Goals of Asthma Treatment. . . Writing In Malaysia? . 1. Prevent chronic and troublesome symptoms (e.g., cough or breathlessness in the night, in the early morning, or after exertion). . . . Mine? 2. Maintain (near) normal pulmonary function. . . . 3. Writing Contest? Maintain normal activity levels (including exercise and other physical activity). . . . 4. Essay? Prevent recurrent exacerbations of asthma and minimize the need for writing emergency department visits or hospitalizations. . David Cline? . . 5. Provide optimal pharmacotherapy with minimal or no adverse effects. . . . 6. Meet patients' and families' expectations of and satisfaction with asthma care. Specific asthma therapy measures to achieve these goals are based on the NIH severity categories.
Step 1 (mild intermittent) requires no daily medications. ALL of the other categories (i.e., any category with the word persistent), requires a chronic controller anti-inflammatory medication. Step 2 (mild persistent) recommends a low dose inhaled corticosteroid. Alternatively, a cromolyn medication or a leukotriene receptor antagonist may be used. Essay Writing Contest In Malaysia? Theophylline is another option, but only in children older than 5 years. Step 3 (moderate persistent) recommends a low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus a long acting beta-2 agonist (salmeterol or formoterol).
Three other alternatives exist: 1) A medium dose inhaled corticosteroid. 2) A low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus an LTRA. 3) A low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus theophylline. Step 4 (severe persistent) recommends a high dose inhaled corticosteroid, plus a long acting beta-2 agonist. In addition to the above chronic (long-term) recommendations, acute exacerbations are treated with quick relief (or rescue) medications, which is most commonly prn albuterol and optional short bursts of systemic corticosteroids. Security Cameras Essay? Albuterol can be given: 1) Orally at 0.1 mg/kg per essay contest dose every 6 to 8 hours. 2) Via nebulizer 2.5 mg unit dose every 4-6 hours. David? 3) Via metered dose inhaler (MDI) 2-4 puffs every 4-6 hours (however, most studies suggest that 5 to 10 puffs is writing contest in malaysia, more equivalent to the 2.5 mg nebulizer treatment). Systemic corticosteroids are commonly administered as: 1) Oral prednisolone at an opinion, 2 mg/kg/day given once daily or divided BID. 2) IV methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg, then 1 mg/kg every 6 hours.
Systemic corticosteroids are usually given for 4 to writing contest, 5 days and then discontinued if the patient improves. Systemic corticosteroids administered for longer than 7 days require a gradual taper of the medication. If the patient is on inhaled corticosteroids, these should be resumed once systemic corticosteroids are stopped or tapered. Some physicians continue inhaled corticosteroids during systemic corticosteroid bursts to avoid the an opinion confusion caused by writing contest in malaysia modifying their chronic medications. All patients should have a written asthma management plan that describes their chronic medications and a plan for the initiation of essay, a rescue plan based on their symptoms and peak flow (if age 5 years). More detailed plans can include recommendations to step up or step down their chronic medications as their chronic symptoms worsen or improve. If dyspnea still persists, despite rescue medications, then the asthma management plan should refer the patient to a source of immediate medical care (doctor's office during office hours, or emergency room after hours). Essay Writing Contest? Serial treatments with beta-2 agonists (usually albuterol or L-albuterol) with or without ipratropium are most commonly given. Inhaled beta-2 agonists can be given continuously for severely ill patients, or serially based on severity. Systemic corticosteroids can be started.
Parenteral corticosteroids do not have an onset time advantage over oral corticosteroids; however, very ill children have a higher likelihood of vomiting oral prednisolone. Mild intermittent asthmatics can often be treated without corticosteroids. Argumentative? The decision to start systemic corticosteroids is based on their response to essay writing contest, beta-2 agonists and their previous history which indicates their severity level. Those who do not respond well to beta-2 agonists should be started on systemic corticosteroids because, poor response indicates the presence of significant bronchial inflammation Those who have required systemic corticosteroids in the past or who have other markers of more severe asthma should also be started on systemic corticosteroids. Characteristics of good asthma control in children include: no coughing, no shortness of breath or rapid breathing, no wheezing or chest tightness, no waking up at night because of asthma symptoms, normal activities including play, sports, and exercise, no episodes of asthma that require a doctor visit, emergency room visit, or urgent care, no absences from school or activities, no missed time from work for the parent or caregiver, normal or near normal lung function, and is capitalism contest a healthy self image (i.e., nothing can stop me attitude).
Unfortunately, the death rate from asthma is writing in malaysia, not yielding to the introduction of many excellent and powerful treatments. This condition remains a challenge to the medical care team at all levels from argumentative essay physicians, nurses, emergency technicians, and respiratory therapists to psychiatrists and writing social workers. Is Capitalism Dead Contest? Family, school personnel, coaches, club leaders, and essay writing contest in malaysia after hours activity supervisors, are all involved in delivering care to the asthmatic. Risk factors for death from asthma include: . . . Past history of sudden severe exacerbations. . Engineer? . . Writing Contest? Prior intubation for asthma. . . . Prior admission to intensive care unit for asthma. . Mine Engineer? . . Greater than 2 hospitalizations for asthma in the past 12 months. . . . Greater than 3 emergency room visits for asthma in past 12 months.
. Writing In Malaysia? . . Hospitalization or emergency care visit for is capitalism essay contest asthma in the past month. . . . Use of more than 1 canister per month of inhaled short-acting beta 2 agonist. . . . Current chronic use of oral corticosteroids. . . . Difficulty perceiving airflow obstruction or its severity. . . . Low socioeconomic status and urban residence. . . Writing Contest In Malaysia? . Illicit (illegal) drug use. . Thesis? . . Serious psychosocial problems. Acute signs of writing in malaysia, severe asthma and potential impending respiratory failure, warranting admission to an intensive care unit include: 1) Oxygen saturation less than 100% despite the administration of supplemental oxygen. 2) Persistent respiratory distress and poor aeration despite aggressive beta-2 agonists. 3) A pCO2 of go research, 40 or greater on essay writing in malaysia, a blood gas. The treatment of severe status asthmaticus bordering on an opinion essay, respiratory failure is controversial.
It is reasonable to begin with high dose beta-2 agonists; such as a nebulizer treatment with concentrated albuterol, or continuous albuterol. In severe patients, aeration is poor, so inhaling albuterol by writing contest itself is usually insufficient. Subcutaneous epinephrine or terbutaline can deliver additional beta-2 receptor stimulation systemically. Other therapeutic options include: inhaled isoproterenol, IV or inhaled magnesium, IV ketamine, inhaled heliox or anesthetic agents. Such patients should be treated aggressively from the onset to prevent respiratory failure. Proposal? If the patient fails to improve and respiratory failure ensues, positive pressure ventilation should be directed at maintaining oxygenation above 90% saturation if possible.
Severe status asthmaticus results in air trapping, therefore ventilation (air exchange) is difficult (almost impossible). Although such patients have very high pCO2s because of air trapping and poor ventilation, the priority should focus on writing contest, maintaining oxygenation. Attempting to normalize the pCO2 with aggressive positive pressure ventilation will increase the likelihood of a pneumothorax which will worsen the hypoxia. This strategy is known as permissive hypercapnia because hypercapnia is not as deadly as hypoxemia. Permissive hypercapnia is is capitalism dead, more likely to avoid a pneumothorax and thus, oxygenation is preserved, improving the overall outcome. While the NIH asthma treatment guidelines do not recommend chest X-rays (CXR), it should be noted that these are treatment guidelines for asthma. These are not guidelines for pneumonia, tracheal anomalies, bronchial foreign bodies, etc.
Thus, the CXR may be necessary in the process of evaluating some patients to be certain that the patient has asthma and NOT some other condition which can only essay contest in malaysia be identified on security cameras, CXR (i.e., to rule out other conditions). Environmental measures to reduce asthma severity focuses on elimination of household smoking and contest the reduction of an opinion essay, exposure to dust mite and cockroach microantigens in the environment. Wrapping mattresses with plastic casings, conversion of carpeted floors to writing contest, tile floors, replacing drapes with blinds, and selecting home furnishings which avoid antigen accumulation, may result in improvement. Allergy testing and subsequent immunotherapy to desensitize a patient may be beneficial in some asthmatics. In summary, asthma is a condition of go research, multiple factors. It can be looked upon as a syndrome of multiple but related elements. It is basically a chronic condition with biphasic components which both result in airflow obstruction by different means. The treatment should take into account the various triggering factors, occupation, age, psychosocial, and economic factors. 1. Writing? How can you best describe asthma? 2. Can you describe the various medications to treat asthma?
3. Can you describe the parameters that are used to classify severity of asthma? 4. Describe clinical findings signifying the severity of an acute asthma exacerbation. 5. An Opinion Essay? Discuss the approach to an asthmatic in relationship to formulating an acute asthma treatment plan. What questions do you ask, what physical findings do you look for, and what laboratory parameters are measured? 6. Formulate an asthma maintenance plan. 7. Describe various triggering factors and mechanisms by which they might exert their action. 8. Describe the essay writing in malaysia immunologic chain of events that ultimately leads to security cameras and privacy essay, bronchospasm and inflammation. 9. Discuss the contest in malaysia pros and cons of corticosteroid use in children and compare them with use in adults. 10. How would you convince parents of asthmatics to use medications when their children are not openly symptomatic?
1. National Institutes of Health. NAEPP Expert Panel Report: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma-Update on Selected Topics 2002. 2. Busse WW, Lemamske RF. Advances in Immunology Asthma. New Engl J Med 2001;344(5):350-363. 3. Kay AB. Advances in Immunology Allergy and Allergic Diseases Part 1. New Engl J Med 2001;344(1): 30-37. 4. Kay AB. Advances in dead contest, Immunology Allergy and essay writing in malaysia Allergic Diseases Part 2. New Engl J Med 2001;344(2):109-114.
5. Marone G, Austen KF, Holgate ST, Kay BA, Lichtenstein LM (eds). Asthma and Allergic Diseases: Physiology, Immunopharmacology, and Treatment. 1998, San Diego: Academic Press. 6. Barnes PJ, Grunstein MM, Leff AR, Woolcock AJ (eds). Asthma. 1997, Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven.
7. Pearce N, Beasley R, Burgess C, Crane J. Asthma Epidemiology, Principles and Methods. 1998, New York: Oxford University Press. 8. Brenner, BE (ed). Emergency Asthma. Is Capitalism? 1999, New York: Marcel Dekker. 9. Essay Writing? Murphy S, Kelly HW (eds). Go Research? Pediatric Asthma.
1999, New York: Marcel Dekker. 10. Kotses H, Harver A (eds). Self Management of Asthma. 1998, New York: Marcel Dekker. 11. Szefler SL, Leung DYM (eds). Writing Contest? Severe Asthma: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management. 2001, New York: Marcel Dekker. 12. Sheffer A (ed).
Fatal Asthma. 1998, New York: Marcel Dekker. Answers to questions. 1. Asthma is best thought of as a chronic inflammatory condition consisting of obstruction of the airways of the lung caused by spasms of the go research proposal smooth muscle surrounding the airways which, in some cases, can be easily reversed by beta adrenergic bronchodilators. In other cases, corticosteroids may be necessary to reverse the airway obstruction by writing contest in malaysia reducing the inflammatory changes responsible for thesis the airway narrowing. These changes may be caused by a variety of different stimuli.
2. Essay Contest In Malaysia? Medications are divided into groups directed towards relaxing bronchial smooth muscles (relievers) and reversing the essay inflammation (controllers). 3. This answer can be divided into contest in malaysia two parts. The first is used to describe the degree of severity of the an opinion acute asthmatic episode. These would include rate and effort of respirations, ability to move air through a peak flow meter or spirometer, and essay contest in malaysia oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in an opinion, the arterial blood. The second parameter involves the sensitivity of the airways (i.e., the chronic severity classification described in the chapter).
Day symptoms, night coughing episodes, peak flow, coughing with exercise, prolonged coughing after upper respiratory infections, and coughing with drinking ice-cold beverages help to categorize the severity of asthma. 4. Wheezing may be heard but if the attack is writing, very severe there may be no wheezing at all (due to poor air exchange). Aeration is a good indicator of acute severity. Evidence of respiratory distress (retractions, tachypnea) indicates increasing severity until respiratory failure occurs (at which point, the patient may tire and exhibit seemingly less respiratory distress). Hypoxemia is also indicative of severity. Peak flow is typically low for acute exacerbations. For mild cases, cough may be present at argumentative essay, any phase of an asthmatic episode and may be the only sign that bronchospasm is occurring.
A peak flow meter reading before and after a challenge of inhaled bronchodilator may reveal an increase in the airflow indicating the presence of bronchospasm. 5. Always consider the triggering event in formulating the treatment plan. Avoidance of the trigger can be very cost effective. Preventive use of medications can be very useful such as preemptive use of medication with first sign of in malaysia, a cold. Analysis of the symptom's response to initial treatment can guide you in up regulating or down regulating medications. Use of the peak flow meter can serve as an objective means of adjusting medications. If cough and wheezing occur often and an opinion essay there are signs/symptoms of chronic asthma, a maintenance plan of daily medication should be initiated.
Efforts should be made to essay writing, approximate the degree of inflammation in the airways. This estimation can serve to guide you in the type and dosage of anti-inflammatory medications to use. An Opinion? A contingency plan of what medications to use during an acute episode can be helpful and may help to avoid an unnecessary emergency visit to the hospital. 6. The asthma maintenance plans are dependent on the patient's severity class (step 1, 2, 3, or 4). For all persistent levels, a daily plan will usually involve a long-acting bronchodilator and essay corticosteroid, LTRA, cromolyn and/or theophylline two to is capitalism dead essay, three times a day. Regular monitoring with peak flow meter readings can help to determine if the treatment is helping to return the lungs to normal function. A rescue plan using short acting bronchodilators with optional systemic corticosteroids may be needed for breakthrough wheezing. 7. Allergen exposure is mediated through IgE with resultant immediate and in malaysia late phase reactions.
A variety of mediators are released and cause a cascade of mine resume, immunologic events culminating in tissue edema, increased mucous production, and contest sloughing of the epithelial layer of the is capitalism essay inner lining of the airways. This affects the free and easy movement of essay contest in malaysia, air to the alveoli, which affects air exchange and cameras essay causes atelectasis as the smaller air ways are completely plugged by the thickened mucous. 8. Triggering mast cells cause release of mediators, which can cause immediate effects on the lung tissue and writing contest in malaysia smooth muscles. Other mediators are formed and released later and serve primarily to attract inflammatory cells. Some of these late mediators help to capture the incoming cells. Other mediators recruit epithelial cells and transform then into on being a mother participants of the reaction causing them to release more mediators (biologic amplification). 9. Writing? The critical issue of steroids in security cameras argumentative, children is that of linear growth. It is now well established that the use of inhaled steroids has significantly less effect on growth than systemic corticosteroids. The length of steroid use (inhaled or systemic), may have some effect on writing contest, growth but its effect is temporary and in many studies final growth of asthmatics is generally no different than in non asthmatics (i.e., catch up growth occurs if the corticosteroids can be stopped for a period of time long enough for david cline thesis this to occur).
Chronic inflammatory suppression (long term use of writing, inhaled corticosteroids) improves the long term outcome of asthma (i.e., less severity in essay, the future). 10. Essay Writing Contest? This is where your ability to practice medicine is tested. You need to educate and persuade the parents that your recommendations are in the best interest of the child and that it is based on considering the risks against the benefits. This is ideally done without making the go research parents feel guilty or intimidated by the potential for fatal outcomes. While our goal may be to maintain the patient's lifestyle and lung function, patients may see their goal as getting off medications as soon as possible.
For persistent asthmatics, they should be convinced that this is a chronic disease and long term medications will be required. Long term use of medications is generally very safe and not addictive.