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Thesis and dissertation directory

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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to directory, write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at essay, examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and and dissertation directory are filled with inspiration.

Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to chun yu xin dissertation, get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for and dissertation you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in essay on usefulness, order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique.

Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of thesis, your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Nature Essay. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and thesis your skills. Essay Lessons. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of directory, Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions.

They can be used when applying for essay on usefulness other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of thesis and dissertation directory, these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and yu xin dissertation there is a great variety of positions available in thesis directory, it. Bell Hooks Essay Lessons. The examples below are a sampling of and dissertation, great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of estee lauder essay, end results as well. Many resumes in thesis directory, the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in of walking, which you list every program, language, etc. you know.

It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for thesis Education and Human Services Positions. 4 Paragraph. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience.

What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and thesis and dissertation licenses you hold as well as details of childhood love, your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and thesis it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Bell Essay. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field.

Notice how the thesis and dissertation example resumes are very specific when it comes to vs. nurture behavior, technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to directory, troubleshoot technical problems. Chun Yu Xin Dissertation. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Thesis Directory. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and 4 paragraph essays skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on thesis directory paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for essays you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is thesis directory, important that you focus on that in nature, your resume.

Whether you are applying at thesis and dissertation directory, a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the vs. nurture criminal essay hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Thesis Directory. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in serving meals to 4 paragraph essays, customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and thesis and dissertation a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and estee essay recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history.

You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to thesis directory, feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to chun, add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Dissertation & Thesis | Division of …

Word-searchable text of Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis. Below is a word-searchable text of Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis unearthed by and dissertation, Politico . For a PDF copy, click here. Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. presented to Princeton University.

in partial fulfillment of the. requirements for the degree of. Bachelor of Arts. Department of bell hooks essay justice childhood love, Sociology. Princeton, New Jersey, 1985. (c) Michelle LaVaughn Robinson, 1985. I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. I authorize Princeton University to lend this thesis to oth- er institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. I further authorize Princeton University to reproduce this. thesis by photocopying or by other means, in total or in.

part, at the request of other institutions or individuals. for the purpose of scholarly research. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. Princeton University requires the signatures of all persons. using or photocopying this thesis. Thesis And Dissertation Directory! Please sign below, and.

give address and date. I. INTRODUCTION 1. II. HYPOTHESIS 4. Dependent Variables 4. Interaction Attitudes 4. Comfort and estee essay its Relationship to. Interaction Attitudes 5. Benefit Attitudes 9. Change Over Time in the Dependent Variables 11.

Independent Variables 15. Causal Model 18. Measures of the Dependent Variables 22. Measures of the thesis and dissertation, Independent Variables 24. IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26. Description of the Sample 26. General Attitudes of yu xin, Respondents 27.

Background of the Respondents 33. Explanatory Findings 36. Time vs. Ideologies 36. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation. to Black Community 37. Association Between Time and Ideologies 39. Time and its Correlates 40. Association Between Ideologies and.

Schools Attended 43. Associations between Ideologies and thesis directory the. Dependent Variables 44. V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 51. Revised Causal Model 51. Major Conclusion 53. New Hypothesis 57. To Mom, Dad, Craig, and all of vs. nurture criminal essay, my special friends: Thank-you for loving me and always making me feel good about. This thesis would not have been possible without the help.

and guidance of my advisor, Professor Walter Wallace. Thank-you Professor Wallace you have made me a much better. I would also like to thank my respondents, members of the. ABPA, who participated in and dissertation my study. It is good to know that. Black Princeton students can count on the support of the As- Special thanks to Mr. Essay Childhood! Steve Dawson, President of the ABPA, and Mr.

Richard Roper for their time and support. Finally, I would like to thank Pat Larue and the Alumni Records. office for assisting me in mailing my questionnaires. The purpose of this study is to examine various attitudes. of Black Princeton alumni in their present state and and dissertation directory as they. are perceived by the alumni to chun yu xin have changed over time. This.

study tries to examine the thesis and dissertation directory, following attitudes of alumni: the extent to which they are comfortable interacting with. Black and with White individuals in criminal behavior various activities; the. extent to which they are motivated to benefit the Black com- munity in comparison to other entities such as themselves, their families, God, etc.; the ideologies they hold with re- spects to thesis and dissertation directory race relations between the Black and vs. nurture essay White commu- nities; and thesis and dissertation feelings they have toward the Black lower class. such as a feeling of obligation that they should help im- prove the lives of this particular group of online, Blacks. As a future Black alumnus, this study is particularly in- teresting because often times I take my own attitudes about. such issues for granted;. never pausing to reflect upon thesis and dissertation directory, how. my experiences at Princeton may somehow have caused my atti- tudes to change. For Medical School Online! This is important for and dissertation Blacks in contempo- rary society because as more Blacks begin attending predomi- nately White universities it will be helpful to essays know how. their experiences in these universities affect their future. attitudes. In years to come if their attitudes do change, is it possible, for example, that they will become more.

comfortable interacting with Blacks or with Whites in vari- ous activities? Will they become more or less motivated to. benefit the thesis and dissertation, Black community? If there is a change in their. attitudes to what might it be attributed? Will they feel. any obligation as a member of the Black community to help.

other Blacks in on usefulness particular who are less fortunate than them- Earlier in my college career, there was no doubt in my. mind that as a member of the Black community I was somehow. obligated to this community and would utilize all of my. present and future resources to benefit this community first. and foremost. My experiences at Princeton have made me far. more aware of and dissertation, my “Blackness” than ever before. I have found. that at Princeton no matter how liberal and open-minded some. of my White professors and classmates try to be toward me, I. sometimes feel like a visitor on justice love campus; as if I really.

don’t belong. Regardless of the circumstances underwhich I. interact with Whites at Princeton, it often seems as if, to. them, I will always be Black first and and dissertation directory a student second. These experiences have made it apparent to me that the. path I have chosen to follow by attending Princeton will. likely lead to yu xin dissertation my further integration and/or assimilation. into a White cultural and social structure that will only. allow me to remain on the periphery of society; never becom- ing a full participant. This realization has presently, made my goals to actively utilize my resources to benefit. the Black community more desirable. At the same time , however, it is conceivable that my.

four years of exposure to thesis and dissertation directory a predominately White, Ivy League. University has instilled within me certain conservative val- ues. Dissertation! For example, as I enter my final year at directory, Princeton, I. find myself striving for many of the same goals as my White. classmates–acceptance to a prestigious graduate or profes- sional school or a high paying position in a successful cor- poration. Thus, my goals after Princeton are not as clear. Is it possible that other Black alumni share these feel- ings? Do most alumni experience a change in their atti- tudes; and, if so, how are they likely to change? This. study will try to provide some answers to hooks essay lessons these questions. However, before discussing the and dissertation, findings, it will be neces- sary to define the variables of the study and vs. nurture behavior explain the.

methods used to thesis and dissertation directory measure these variables. This. study focuses on four dependent variables which may. be divided into two attitude categories: 1) the extent to. which respondents to the questionnaire feel personally and. ideologically comfortable interacting with Blacks and with. Whites; and 2) the relative degree of motivation these re- spondents have to essay benefit various entities–including the. Black community, themselves, their families, and the Ameri- can community at large (which is, of course, predominately. White). Let us call these two categories “Interaction Atti- There are two basic variables in this category.

By in- quiring about the relative comfort that the respondents feel. when interacting with both Blacks and Whites in various ac- tivities, the study tries to provide some idea of the re- spondents’ personal preferences when interacting with Blacks. and with Whites, and thus measures their degree of attach- ment to individuals of different races. Directory! In addition, the. study also inquires about essay on usefulness of walking respondents’ ideological prefer- ences regarding relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Let us consider these two variables more closely.

Comfort and its Relationship to Interaction Attitudes. Webster’s Dictionary of English offers several key syno- nyms for “comfort”, some of which are ease, pleasure, and. enjoyment. When one speaks of being “comfortable with” someone or something, one often thinks of environments which. promote feelings of thesis and dissertation, ease and with which one is hooks essay justice love lessons familiar, such as being in and dissertation one’s own home or with one’s family and. close friends. More often than not, one finds comfort in.

things with which one is familiar rather than in unfamiliar. things. It is essay also more likely that one is more attached to. to things with which one is familiar than to things with. which one is unfamiliar. Therefore, in the case of the re- spondents, I argue that the relative sense of comfort they. may feel when interacting with Blacks in comparison to. Whites (and vice versa) in various activities reflects the. relative ease and familiarity the respondents feel with. Blacks in comparison to Whites which, in thesis turn, indicates the. extent to which the hooks childhood, respondents are personally attached to.

Blacks as individuals in comparison to thesis directory Whites as individu- It is important to point out that one’s attitudes about. race relations on an individual level have an important de- gree of personal essay school application online, logical independence from directory, one’s attitudes about race. relations on a community level. An individual who is more. personally comfortable with Blacks than with Whites on an. individual level need not hold political ideologies which.

support the separation of Blacks and Whites on a community. level. Likewise, an individual who is personally more com- fortable with individual Whites than with individual Blacks. may or may not hold ideologies which support the integration. of Blacks and Whites on vs. nurture behavior essay a community level. Therefore, it is. necessary to thesis directory measure attitudes towards relations between. Blacks and Whites on a community level (to be referred to as. “ideologies”) independently from personal attitudes towards.

relations between Blacks and Whites on an individual level. The variable to be discussed next tries to accomplish this. by mesauring the extent to which the respondents are separa- tionist and/or pluralist or integrationist and/or assimilia- tionist (to be referred to as sep/plur and int/assim). Separationism/Pluralism and Integrationism/Assimilationism. Unlike the discussion of “comfort”.in the previous sec- tion, literature defining concepts of sep/plur and nature essay int/assim. was found. Thesis And Dissertation Directory! Therefore, in application online order to thesis directory demonstrate the role of. these concepts in this study, the following section will. draw on the writings of such authors as van den Berghe, Billingsley, and Carmichael and nature vs. nurture Hamilton, to name a few, whose writings utilize these concepts. van den Berghe (1967), discusses the possibility of two.

types of pluralism: 1)cultural structural pluralism in. which one finds different ethnic groups with their own lan- guages, values, etc., but participating in a common social. structure (things people do together); and 2)social struc- tural pluralism in which one finds shared languages and val- ues across different ethnic groups each participating in its. own separate social structure.)1 These definitions of and dissertation directory, plural- ism utilized by of walking, van den Berghe serve as a basis for using. the term “pluralism” as a measure of the respondents’s atti- tudes about race relations between Blacks and Whites on a. The idea of thesis and dissertation directory, separationism and pluralism (both cultural. structural and social structural) is also discussed by Bill- ingsley (1968) who believes there is a need for Blacks to. build up their own communities; define themselves by new. “Black” standards different from the old White standards; and exercise power and control over their own institutions.

and services within the Black community. 1 Pierre van den Berghe, Race and personal school application Racism, (New York: Wiley), Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton’s (1967) devel- oped definitions of separationism in their discussion of. Black Power which guided me in the formulation and use of. this concept in the study. The concept of Black Power rests on the fundamen- tal premise: Before a group can enter the open. society, it must close ranks.

By this we mean. that group solidarity is necessary before a group. can operate effectively from a bargaining position. of strength in thesis directory a pluralistic society.’ Thus, Carmichael and Hamilton define separationism as a nec- essary stage for the development of the Black community be- fore this group integrates into the “open society”. The idea of creating separate social structure and cul- tural structures as suggested by these authors serves to. clarify definitions of separationism/pluralism as they func- tion in the dependent variable which tries to measure the. respondents’ ideologies concerning political and economic. relations between the Black and White communities. Conyers and Wallace (1976) embody the idea of Blacks.

working with Whites as a plausible political and economic. ideology about relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Their discussion focuses on estee lauder representative integra- tion which is the integration of Black official into various. aspects of politics. They discuss problems which face these. Black officials who must persuade the White community that.

they are above issues of race and that they are representing. 2 Stokely Carmichael and :Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The. Politics of Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), all people and thesis directory not just Black people. The idea of working. with Whites to vs. nurture criminal behavior form a common social structure and cultural.

structure as opposed to creating two separate social struc- tures and cultural structures discussed in directory the writings of. Conyers and Wallace have aided in the development of con- cepts of integrationism and assimilationism as they function. The second set of dependent variables in this study tries. especially to on usefulness of walking measure the extent to which the respondents. were motivated to thesis benefit various social groups. The first. variable was designed to provide some idea of how interested. the respondents are in positively contributing to the Black. community relative to other social groups such as the White. community, their families, their occupations.

The second. variable in this category was designed to measure the nature. of the respondents’ attitudes not toward the Black community. as an undifferentiated whole, but specifically toward mem- bers of the lower class in that community. Let us consider. these variables a little more closely. The study examines the estee lauder, respondents’ motivations to ben- efit various individuals and groups of thesis and dissertation, individuals, thereby, measuring their value priorities. The study inquires about. the respondents’ motivations to benefit him/herself, and the.

following social groups: the family, the Black community, the White community, God and personal essay for medical church, the and dissertation directory, U.S. society, the. non-White races of the essay for medical school, world, and thesis the human species as a. In an individual’s lifetime, it is necessary that the yu xin dissertation, in- dividual focus his/her interests on thesis and dissertation directory benefiting a limited. number of things at a time because it is impossible to help. everyone and everything equally at the same time. Personal Essay Application Online! There- fore, the individual must create a motivational hierachy. from which the individual can determine which social groups. are most important to benefit. Some individuals may place. the highest value on benefiting themselves or their fami- lies.

Others may value their occupational fields most high- ly. Others may place God before everything else. And Dissertation Directory! In still. other instances, one’s motivation to benefit either the U.S. society, the non-White races of the world or the human spec- ies as a whole could be most powerful. The desire to benefit the Black community as previously. mentioned, is also included in the list of subjective moti- vations. Estee! However, this dependent variable did not differen- tiate the thesis, Black community in any way because it tries to. measure the level of interest the respondents have in the. Black community as a whole in hooks essay childhood lessons comparison to directory other possible.

social groups as a whole. The variable discussed next tries. to make up for that. The second benefit variable examines the respondents’ desire to essay of walking benefit specifically the Black lower class rather. than examining attitudes towards the Black community as a. whole.

This identification is useful because there is a. large segment of the Black community that is lower class and. as a result of the strong likelihood that respondents now. belong to classes higher and more powerful, politically and. economically, than the lower class largely because they have. graduated from thesis and dissertation directory, Princeton University, it is interesting to. see what their attitudes are towards a large majority of. Blacks unlike themselves.

Feelings of obligation to improve. the life of the Black lower class, feelings of guilt for be- traying the Black lower class, as well as feelings of shame. or envy toward the Black lower class are investigated in. CHANGE OVER TIME IN THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES. By adding a measure for change over vs. nurture criminal essay, time the dependent. variables may be.studied both in their present perceived.

state and thesis as they are perceived by bell hooks essay childhood, the respondents to have. changed over time. The study accomlishes this measure of. change by dividing the respondents’ lives into three peri- ods: “Pre-Princeton” (years before entering college), “Princeton” (years in college), and “Post-Princeton” (years. after graduating from college).3. It is important to and dissertation realize that the change measured is. that which is perceived by the individual; an introspective. measure of change. For example, the individual answering.

the question may believe that he/she has changed in no way. at all, however, if someone else, possibly a family member, were asked the same question about the individual, it is. possible that they would believe that the individual has. drastically changed over bell hooks justice childhood lessons, time. The measure for change over and dissertation, time is focused around.

Princeton because the study attempts to examine the effects. of a Princeton education on Blacks. 4 Paragraph! Respondents are repre- sentative of a small number of Blacks who attend predomi- nately White universities and they also represent an even. smaller portion of Blacks attending Ivy League universities. Unversities such as Princeton only began admitting Blacks in.

the 1960’s and presently Blacks comprise only about 10% of. total enrollment. Due to the small number of Blacks in at- tendance, the University does not often meet the social and. academic needs of its Black population because these univer- 3 For this study, change was computed for first, the Pre- Princeton to Princeton period (to be referred to thesis and dissertation as “Pre- to-Prin”) and lessons then for the Princeton to Post-Princeton. period (to be referred to as “Prin-to-Post”). By calcu- lating the difference between the number indicated by re- spondents for Pre-Princeton point and the number indicated.

by respondents for the Princeton point, it was possible to. estimate the change during the Pre-to-Prin period. Thesis And Dissertation! Like- wise the difference between the number indicated by chun, the. respondents for thesis directory Princeton point and the number indicated. for the estee lauder, Post-Princeton point shows the change during the. Princeton to Post-Princeton period.. sities focus their attentions on directory accommodating the White. students who comprise the majority of their enrollments. Dejoie discusses the for medical school application, claims of the thesis and dissertation, negative effects of. predominately White universities on the Black students at- tending those universities. Vs. Nurture! Although I was unable to find.

empirical support for Dejoie’s essay, I feel the ideas she. expressed are worth some discussion. Dejoie believes that “Institutional policies of predomi- nately White universities have established practices which. favor the and dissertation, prefered groups and nature have ranked priorities which. are meant to facilitate the tasks and improve the conditions. of White students while ignoring the needs of the Black stu- dents”.” Dr. Thesis Directory! Dejoie goes on in her study to discuss the ef- fects of biased curricula which does not encourage,”…The.

contribution of estee lauder, Blacks, the study of Blacks, as a group”.5. She states that Departments of thesis and dissertation directory, Black Studies are kept very. separate from White university curricula. Dejoie also dis- cusses the negative aspects of social and non-academic ac- tivites at these schools: “Fraternities, sororities, home- coming activities and student government maintain the White. status-quo. As in academic areas, the social aspects of. university life systematically follow the interests of the. White students–the majority group”.6. 4 Dr. Carolyn Dejoie, “Low Morale in bell hooks childhood Higher Education: Blacks in.

Predominately White Universities”, (source of thesis directory, article unknown). As a result of such biases, both academic and for medical school online non-academ- ic, it is often difficult for some Black students to adjust. to Princeton’s environment; and unfortunately there are very. few adequate support groups which provide some form of gui- dance and counsel for Black students having difficulty mak- ing the transition from their home environments to Prince- ton’s environment. Most students are dependent upon the use. of their own faculties to carry them through Princeton. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly what kinds. of changes Black students undergo, if any, while in Prince- For this study, the Pre-Princeton measure provides a. rough idea of what kinds of thesis directory, beliefs respondents held with.

respects to the dependent variables before entering college. and the Post-Princeton measure provides some idea of what. respondents’ beliefs are after college. Thus, if findings. show consistency between the two periods (Pre-Princeton and. Post-Princeton), it may be possible that no change occured. as a result of their Princeton education, or possibly in. this case, Princeton’s effect on the respondents’ beliefs. lasted for a short time and then no longer effected their. attitudes, thus making these effects temporary. Lauder Essay! If findings.

show some change through the periods, it may be possible. that their Princeton education influenced these changes. By measuring a number of independent variables, this. study will try to determine some correlates of the respon- dents’ interest in interacting with Blacks and Whites on an. individual and a community level, as well as their interest. to benefit various social groups; the Black community in. particular. The independent variables of this study include. the following: the actual time the respondents spent inter- acting with Blacks and Whites (to be referred to as “time”); and the racial make-up of the individual’s primary and sec- ondary schools, in addition to the racial make-up of the in- dividual’s neighborhood; the race of the person whom the in- dividual most admired throughout his/her lifetime; the. individual’s image of God; the number of thesis directory, books in the indi- vidual’s home while growing up and presently; and the age.

and sex of the personal essay for medical school, individual. Therefore, although this study. examines several independent variables, as will be shown in. a later chapter, only a few independent variables were found. to have strong relationships to the dependent variables. This section will discuss the independent variables found to. have the and dissertation, strongest relationship to essay on usefulness of walking the dependent variables.

first, and will discuss the independent variables of the. study which are found to have no relationship to the depen- dent variables last. As will be demonstrated, the independent variables which. measure the directory, actual time the indivdual spent with Blacks in. comparison to Whites throughout Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton years will be used as an independent. variable.

This variable is related to several other inde- pendent variables which measure the racial make-up of the. individual’s neighborhood in which he/she grew up as well as. the individual’s primary and estee secondary schools. The individual’s past and present socio-economic status. is measured by the independent variable which asks for the. economic class in which the individual’s family belonged.

when growing up, in addition to the individual’s career mo- bility in comparison to the individual’s parents’ socio-eco- Another independent variable measured in this study is. the race of the person whom the individual most admired. thoughout his/her lifetime. This variable enables one to.

examine the influence of the race of the thesis and dissertation, individual’s role. models on on usefulness of walking their attitudes with respect to the dependent. variables of the study. A rough measure of thesis, literateness (tendency for an individ- ual to include reading and writing as a major part of his/ her life) is attempted by the variable examining the 4 paragraph essays, number. of books in the individuals home while growing up and pres- ently; and finally, age and sex of the individual will also. The study contains a set of questions examining the indi- vidual’s belief in God. This measure has been used in place. of the traditional measure which asks simply, “Do you be- lieve in God? “requiring a “yes” or “no” response or “Which. bests describes your religious beliefs? Check one: Protes- tant, Catholic, Jewish, Athiest, none of the above, other.” Instead of examining whether or not the individual believes.

in God, Piazza and Glock (1979) demonstrated that examining. the specific content of the individual’s beliefs as opposed. to measuring whether or not the individual believes in God. provides greater insight into and dissertation directory, the individual’s ideas about. God. The study found that when people answer “yes” or “no” to the hooks essay justice childhood lessons, traditional measure of Belief in God, they do not all. mean the same thing; their conception of God varies. “Most. Americans Believe in a God, but this does not necessarily. imply that they have the same thing in thesis mind”.7.

In order to obtain a clearer idea of the content of the. individual’s religious beliefs, Piazza and Glock developed a. question that depends on three interrelated measures: the. extent to which the individual does or does not believe in a. God, the degree to which the personal essay for medical online, individual believes God influ- ences the way society is organized, .and the degree to which. the individual believes God influences the thesis and dissertation directory, individual’s own. 7 Piazza and Glock, “Images of God and Their Social Mean- ing”, Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, The diagram below represents the original hypothesized.

relationships between the independent and dependent vari- Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivations to estee benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the thesis directory, Black lower class. It is my belief, as seen by bell hooks essay, the above causal model, that. the independent variable which measures the actual time the. respondents have spent throughout the three periods of their. lifetime with Blacks and directory with Whites will have a strong ef- fect on the dependent variables of the study because the.

more the individual spends time with a group of people, the. more the individual will be familiar with that particular. group of people. For example, if the study shows that more. respondents spend time with Blacks than with Whites during. each period of his/her lifetime, the study is likely to show. more respondents tend to be comfortable with Blacks than.

with Whites when interacting in various activities. I also further hypothesize that this sense of essays, comfort. with Blacks will be greatest in all the activities measured. by this dependent variable except intellectual activites. Intellectually, Blacks may be more comfortable with Whites.

as a result of a greater amount of thesis, exposure to Whites in an. academic setting while at Princeton. Attending Princeton. has probably forced the lauder, respondents to and dissertation compete intellectual- ly with Whites more than with Blacks and, thus, they have. probably become more familiar with Whites intellectually, but in other activities they are not likely to personal for medical school application online have gained.

familiarity with Whites if they did not spend time with. Whites in other activities besides intellectual ones. As a result of this greater sense of comfort felt by re- spondents with groups with whom they have spent more time, more respondents will be interested in benefiting these par- ticular groups in comparison to others. Thesis Directory! Thus, the essay on usefulness, variable. measuring time spent with Blacks or Whites will also influ- ence the dependent variable measured by the respondents’ mo- tivation to benefit various social groups.

For example, re- spondents who. Thesis! have spent time with Blacks are likely to yu xin be. more comfortable with Blacks and will, therefore, take a. great interest in benefiting this group in comparison to. other social groups. Directory! Consequently, it is also likely that. these respondents are motivated to 4 paragraph essays benefit self, their loved. ones (who are also likely to and dissertation directory be Black) and personal essay for medical online the Black commu- nity in comparison to other social groups indicated by this. variable. While Blacks who are more comfortable with Whites. than with Blacks will probably be less interested in ben- efiting the Black community. The more respondents spend time with Blacks, the more po- sitive and compassionate they will be in thesis and dissertation directory their attitudes to- wards lower class Black Americans, expressing strong feel- ings of obligation to take part in improving their lives. Feelings of obligation will also tend to be strong for.

Blacks who have spent more time with Whites because of a. general sense of compassion towards all underprivileged peo- ple. However, the feelings of chun yu xin dissertation, pride in remaining apart from. their lives will be much stronger than their feelings of. pride in not remaining apart from their lives because these. respondents will show tendencies of downplaying the rela- tionship between themselves and other Blacks. The socio-economic status of the respondents’ parents in.

addition to the individual’s career mobility are likely to. place these individual’s in social and economic arenas more. compatible with Whites, who make up a large segment of mid- dle class Americans, because they will be able to afford all. of the luxuries typical of the thesis, White middle class. Chun Yu Xin Dissertation! Thus, the higher the class and and dissertation directory the more upward the career mobili- ty, the more comfortable these Blacks will be with Whites. than with lower class Blacks.

Class and criminal behavior essay upward mobility. will probably influence the dependent variables in the same. way that time spent influenced the independent variables. My overall hypotheses described in this section focuses. on the group with whom the respondents identify most. The. independent variables measure identification through such. questions as time spent with Blacks and thesis directory Whites, socio-eco- nomic class, career mobility, etc. The individual’s degree.

of identification with either Blacks or Whites will deter- mine his/her motivations to benefit various social groups, his/her ideologies about race relations between the Black. and White communites, relative comfort felt by him/her when. interacting with Blacks and Whites, and his/her interest in. the Black lower class. The more the individual identifies. with the Black community the more his attitudes will sway. towards a positive relationship with the Black community, however, the more the individual identifies with the White.

community the estee essay, more his attitudes will sway towards a neg- ative relationship with the Black community. Thesis And Dissertation! This idea of. identification will be discussed further in the Summary and. Conclusions chapter of essay justice childhood, this study. The first part of the questionnaire, questions 1, 3, 4, and 5 measure the dependent variables, interaction and ben- efit attitudes. The second part of the questionnaire, ques- tions 2 and 6 through 19, measure the independent variables. Measures of the Dependent Variables.

Using a scale varying from feeling “much more comfortable. with Blacks” through feeling “about equally comfortable with. Blacks and Whites”, to feeling “much more comfortable with. Whites”, the first question of the study asked respondents. to indicate the relative degree of thesis, comfort they felt while. interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activities. during the three life-periods. Estee! The activities referred to. were as follows: “intellectual (discussing philosophical, scientific, technical or artistic ideas”; “social (partying, dining, going to shows and sports)”; “religious (sharing re- ligious views, worshipping)”; “political (participating in. demonstrations, political campaigns and thesis and dissertation organizations)”; “business (working on a paying job, as ‘subordinate and/or.

superordinate)”; “dating (including all specifically sexual. activities)”; “sports and athletics (including keeping in. shape and competing)”; and “in general (considering all ac- Question 3 asked alumni to rate the contributions to. their behavior, during the three life-periods, of motiva- tions to benefit various individuals and social groups. The. scale used for this question varied from feeling the motiva- tion made “no” contribution to their behavior through feel- ing the dissertation, motivation made a “moderate” contribution to their. behavior to feeling the motivation made a “very strong” con- tribution to their behavior. The individuals and thesis directory social. groups referred to were as follows: self; loved ones; occu- pation; God and church; local residential community; the. Black American community; the USA as a society; the non-

White races of the world; and the human species as a whole. A similar scale was used to measure the respondents’ views during the three life-periods about relations between. the Black and White communities in the U.S. in question 4. In this scale, alternatives ranged from being “very strongly. separationist and/or pluralist” through being “undecided” to. being “very strongly integrationist and/or assimilationist. Question 5, the last measure of the dependent variables. asked respondents about their personal attitudes towards. lower class Black Americans. This question was broken into. a series of statements to which the respondents were asked.

to indicate if they felt the statement was “very true”, “false” or if respondents were “undecided”. Some of chun yu xin, the. statements measured were as follows: “I feel proud that I. have been strong enough to thesis and dissertation avoid remaining in or falling. into, lower class life”; “I feel obligated to help improve. their life”; “I feel they must help themselves”.

Measures of the 4 paragraph, Independent Variables. The second part of the and dissertation, questionnaire consists of fourteen. questions aimed at measuring the essays, independent variables of. the study (e.g., how much time spent with Blacks vs. Whites).

These questions are very straightforward and try. to provide a general description of the respondents. Directory! For. example, question 9 asks “Which of the following describes. your primary and secondary schools?” The choices are, all. or almost all Black, mostly Black, about equally Black and. White, mostly White, and 4 paragraph essays all or almost all White. This.

question, in addition to others like question 5 which asked. for the predominate racial make-up of the neighborhood in. which the thesis directory, respondents grew up, provide a general idea of the. types of racial associations the chun, respondents had before en- tering Princeton. Others such as those questionning respon- dents’ current living arrangements, age, sex, and career mo- bility in questions 16, 17, 18, provide a general picture of. the respondents’ ,present lifestyle. Questions 6, 7, and 8. measure the content of the thesis and dissertation directory, respondents’ belief in God. These. questions asked the following: the respondents’ belief in. “God”, the influence of “God” in chun the respondents’ personal. life, and the respondents’ belief in the influence of “God” on the way society is organized.

These variables may be. combined to create new independent variables if desired. The sample of 400 Black Princeton alumni was obtained. from the and dissertation directory, Alumni Records Office at Princeton University. With the personal essay for medical school application, permission of thesis, Steve Dawson, the President of on usefulness of walking, the. Association of Black Princeton Alumni (ABPA) and his office, the staff at the Alumni Records Office assisted the study by. selecting every fourth name on a mailing list of approxi- mately 1200 names until 400 names were collected. The questionnaire was sent through U.S. mail along with a. letter from the and dissertation directory, President of the ABPA, encouraging subjects. to participate in the study, and a stamped, self-addressed. envelope for the return of the nature behavior, questionnaire. The sample.

consists of Black Americans who graduated from Princeton’s. undergraduate program. The total number of thesis, returned ques- tionnaires was 89; thus, the response rate for this ques- tionnaire was approximately 22%. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION. DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE. The following section intends to on usefulness of walking provide an thesis and dissertation directory idea of how. the alumni responded to the questionnaire in general. In.

order to fully appreciate such a discussion one must keep in. mind the uniqueness of the of walking, individuals upon directory, which this study. focuses. Not only vs. nurture criminal essay, are these respondents representative of. middle class Black Americans, but as some of the first. Blacks to be integrated into Princeton University(infamous. for being racially the thesis directory, most conservative of the Ivy League. With 73% of respondents indicating that they were between.

the ages of 25 and bell hooks justice childhood lessons 34 years (see table 1), it is also proba- ble that the majority of the respondents were attending. Princeton during the 1970’s when affirmative action which. provided numerous opportunities for Blacks economically, ed- ucationally, and thesis occupationally was put into effect. Application Online! For. the first time since reconstruction Blacks were beginning to. be properly represented in and dissertation such fields as politics, govern- ment, medicine, education, etc. The Black Power Movement.

was also strong during this time and essays as I have mentioned. earlier in the study, such leaders as Stokely Carmichael. were stressing the need for Blacks to thesis directory separate themselves. from White society in order to strengthen the hooks love lessons, Black communi- ty. Thus, it will be fascinating to find out what types of. Blacks decided to attend a prestigious, White university, and how this education may have affected them. General Attitudes of Respondents. In table 2, during the Pre-to-Prin period, the directory, percentage. of respondents who reported spending more time interacting.

with Blacks than with Whites rose sharply from 43% to 61%. Yet, during the Prin-to-Post period, the percentage of re- spondents spending time with Blacks dropped back down from. Data in. Table 2 only show percentages of respondents. spending time with Blacks and Whites for what shall be re- garded, for the purposes of this study, as particular points. in time, i.e., Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton.

One cannot know from bell justice love, these data, how individual respondents. changed between these points. This type of and dissertation directory, information is. available,: however, by examining Table 2a which shows the. percentage of respondents that (1) changed in the direction. of spending more time with Blacks, (2) made no change in. this respect, and (3) changed in the direction of spending. more time with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin- to-Post periods.

Thus, Table 2a shows that during the Pre- to-Prin period 46% of the respondents changed toward spend- ing more time with Blacks, while only 26% changed toward. spending more time with Whites. During the Prin-to-Post. period, however, the percentage of respondents who changed. toward spending more time with Blacks dropped drastically by.

Thus far in the findings, an interesting trend has al- ready appeared which shows that the changes and bell essay justice childhood love differences. in the thesis and dissertation, tables are related to something that happened to the. respondents while at Princeton. This belief will be dis- cussed further in the conclusion section of the study. Just as the estee essay, percentage of respondents who spent more time. with Blacks than with Whites (and vice versa) appeared to. change during Princeton, the percentage of respondents who.

reported holding sep/plur ideologies regarding relations be- tween the Black and White communities also changed during. Princeton. In Table 3, from the Pre-Princeton point to thesis and dissertation the. Post-Princeton point the percentage of respondents who held. sep/plur ideologies greatly increased from lauder, 26% to 40%. Directory! Yet, from the Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point this.

percentage of respondents declined from 40% to 31%. In Table 3a which shows the hooks essay love, individual-level change in. ideologies over time, it is clear that 45% of the respon- dents changed toward becoming more sep/plur in comparison to. only 16% who changed toward becoming more int/assim during. the Pre-to-Prin period. However, during the Prin-to-Post. period this 45% of thesis directory, respondents who changed toward becoming. more sep/plur dropped to 19%, while the 16% of essay, respondents.

who changed toward becoming more int/assim rose to 32%. The data in tables 3 and thesis and dissertation 3a demonstrate that not only did. the percentage of respondents who spent more time with. Blacks than with Whites increase during Princeton, but there. was also an increase in the percentage of respondents who. held sep/plur ideologies. Interestingly enough, the percentage of respondents who.

were motivated to benefit the Black community increased from. 46% at the Pre-Princeton point to 63% at the Princeton. point, and remained drastically unchanged (64%) Post-Prince- ton (see Table 4.3). The change over essay school online, time as seen in Table 4.3a shows that the. 35% of the respondents becoming more motivated to thesis and dissertation benefit. the Black community during the hooks childhood love lessons, Pre-to-Prin period decreased.

to 13% during the Prin-to-Post period, and and dissertation directory similarily, the. 10% of respondents becoming less motivated to criminal essay benefit the. Black community increased to 20% during the same two peri- ods. Thus, even though Table 4.3 shows roughly the same. percentage of respondents were motivated to benefit the. Black community Post-Princeton as Princeton, Table 4.3a. shows that during the Pre-to-Prin period the individual-lev- el change was away from this motivation.

Findings in tables 4 and thesis 4.1 are roughly similar to find- ings in Table 4.3 for. respondents’ motivations to benefit. self and personal school loved ones. However, for individual-level change. tables 4a and 4.1a, a larger percentage of respondents be- came motivated to benefit self and loved ones during the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods than they become less. motivated to benefit themselves and thesis their loved ones. Thus, becoming increasingly motivated to benefit self and loved.

ones during both periods, but especially during the Prin-to- Post periods, and especially toward benefiting self. Occupational motivations, in table 4.2 show that during. Princeton, there was a larger percentage of respondents who. were not motivated to benefit their occupations in compari- son to the percentages of essay on usefulness of walking, respondents who are moderately mo- tivated and directory motivated to benefit occupation. During Post-

Princeton, however, the bell essay justice childhood, percentage of respondents who were. strongly motivated to benefit occupation increased greatly. Tables 4.4 and 4.4a which show the percentage of respon- dents who are motivated or were motivated to benefit God, and the thesis directory, individual-level change in this motivation respec- tively demonstrate an increase in the percentage of bell justice love, respon- dents not motivated to benefit God; during the Pre-to-Prin. period; 40% during Pre-Princeton to 45% during Princeton, which decreases during Post-Princeton from 45% to 41% (see. table 4.4).

Table 4.4a shows that during Pre-to-Prin period. a larger percentage of respondents reported becoming unmoti- vated to benefit God, than they were becoming motivated to. benefit God, but during the Prin-to-Post period a larger. percentage of respondents reported becoming motivated to. benefit God than they were becoming not motivated to benefit. Tables 5 and 5.1 which show the percentage of and dissertation directory, respondents. feeling comfortable interacting with Blacks and estee Whites in. both intellectual and social activities provide data which. also appear to change during Princeton in and dissertation directory comparison to Pre- Princeton and Post-Princeton.

Even though the change is hooks not. drastic for intellectual activities, the 26% of the respon- dents who were comfortable with Blacks rose to 37% from and dissertation, Pre- Princeton to behavior essay Princeton, and dropped back to 22% during the. Post-Princeton point. The pattern of group-level change for. social activities was similar: the and dissertation directory, change from the Pre- Princeton to the Princeton point (64% and 73% felt more com- fortable with Blacks at these times) was followed during the. Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point by an opposite. change (73%, and 62% felt comfortable with Blacks). In tables 5a we find that 36% of the respondents reported. becoming intellectually more comfortable with Blacks, in.

contrast to the 16% of the respondents who reported becoming. intellectually more comfortable with Whites during the Pre- to-Prin period. Nature Behavior! During the and dissertation directory, Prin-to-Post period, however, these figures were reversed, with only essay justice childhood love lessons, 10% becoming more. comfortable with Blacks while 31% became more comfortable. Similar individual-level changes in feelings of comfort.

in social activities appear in table 5.1a. The 31% of re- spondents who reported becoming comfortable with Blacks dur- ing the Pre-to-Prin period decreased to 10% during the Prin- to-Post period, and the 11% who reported becoming more. comfortable with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin period in- creased to 31% during the Prin-to-Post period. In table 5 we find that a larger percentage of the thesis directory, re- spondents reported feeling equally comfortable with Blacks. and Whites in intellectual activities during each of the.

three periods than reported feeling more comfortable with. Blacks or more comfortable with Whites. Indeed, comparing. intellectual comfort (table 5) with social comfort, dating. comfort, political comfort, and general comfort respondents.

feel interacting with Blacks and Whites in tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6, table 5 shows a greater percentage of respon- dents who felt equally comfortable with Blacks and yu xin dissertation Whites. than in any of these other tables (which is closer to feel- ing more comfort with Blacks) and also shows a smaller per- centage of respndents who felt comfortable with Blacks in. comparison to any of the other comfort tables. Thesis Directory! The latter. supports the essay on usefulness of walking, hypothesis that the comfort respondents feel. with Blacks will be greater in and dissertation all activities accept intel- lectual ones. However, it must be noted that for personal for medical school online business. and sporting (see tables 5.3 and 5.5), percentages of re- spondents reporting comfort with Blacks are also small in. comparison to thesis and dissertation tables (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6). Background of the Respondents.

There was a split between the nature vs. nurture criminal behavior essay, sexes; 60% of the respon- dents were male and thesis and dissertation 40% were female (see table 6). Personal Essay For Medical Application! Fifty- one percent of the thesis and dissertation, respondents were raised in homes which. were lower middle class; while 24% of the respondents were. raised in lower or under class households, and 24% were. raised in upper to upper middle class households (see table.

Table 8 shows that reading and writing became more apart. of the respondents’ lives after they left Princeton. The. seventy-four percent of respondents who indicated having 51. to over 100 books in their homes during the time they were. growing up increased to 89%, while the essay on usefulness of walking, 25% of respondents. indicating living in homes with less than 50 books while. growing up decreased to directory 11%. Sixty-five percent of respondents said they grew up in.

all or mostly Black neighborhoods, 20% said they grew up in. all or mostly White neighborhoods, and 15% of the respon- dents reported growing up in neighborhoods that were equally. Black and White. Fifty-one percent of the essay, respondents re- ported that they grew up in directory cities, 40% grew up in suburbs, and only 4 paragraph essays, 9% reported growing up on a farm or in “open coun- Even though more respondents reported growing up in Black. neighborhoods many attended secondary schools whose popula- tion was becoming less Black than White in comparison to. their primary schools. For example, the percents for re- spondents who reported attending Black primary schools and. White primary schools were almost equal; 46% Black, 45% White and 9% Black and White. However, for the secondary.

schools, the percent of respondents reporting that they at- tended White schools increased to 63%, while the directory, percent of. respondents who reported they attended Black schools dropped. to 24%, and criminal behavior 13% attended schools that were equally Black and. Although the thesis, schools the respondents attended during the. Pre-Princeton point became more White than Black, this trend.

did not appear with respect to their present living arrange- ments. Fifty-four percent of respondents reported living. with one or more Blacks, only 5% reported living with one or. more Whites, 4% reported living with one or more Blacks and. Whites, and on usefulness of walking 38% lived alone. At all three times investigated in this study, respon- dents reported admiring Blacks more than Whites. During the. Pre-Princeton point, 58% reported admiring a relative, while. 30% reported admiring a Black friend, or Black fictional or. non-fictional person; and and dissertation directory only 11% reported admiring a White.

friend, or White fictional or non-fictional person. Dissertation! During. the Princeton point, 50% of the thesis, respondents reported admir- ing a Black friend or fictional/non-fictional person, while. 39% reported admiring a relative, and once again, only 10% reported admiring a White friend or fictional/non-fictional. person.

During the Post-Princeton point, 47% reported ad- miring a relative, 44% reported admiring a Black friend or. fictional/non-fictional person, and 9% reported admiring a. White friend or fictional/non-fictional friend (see table. Seventy-one percent of the yu xin, respondents reported being in. careers that have made them upwardly mobile from their pa- rents’ socio-economic class, while none of the respondents. reported being downwardly mobile from directory, their parents’ socio- economic class, and only 17% of the essay, respondents reported re- maining even with their parents’ socio-economic class; 12% did not know yet how they were moving (see table 10). With respect to belief in thesis and dissertation directory God, it appears that their gen- eral belief in some kind of God was relatively high.

Sixty- two percent of the bell hooks essay justice love lessons, respondents said they definitely believe. in God, while only 6% reported that they do not believe in. God; .24% are uncomfortable with the word “God” but believe. in a.transcendent force; and 9% either do not know or are. uncertain.

Seventy-one percent of the respondents believe. God influences their own lives, but only 43% of the respon- dents believe that God influences the way society is and dissertation directory organ- The strongest relationships found in this study focus on. two variables. The amount of time the respondents spent. with Blacks in essays comparison to Whites over thesis and dissertation, the three periods. of the lessons, respondents’ lifetimes was found to be stongly relat- ed to most of the dependent variables. However, it was also. found that the thesis, ideologies held by the respondents about de- sirable race relations between the Black and White communi- ties was also strongly related to essay justice most of the thesis and dissertation directory, dependent. variables. Thus, it was helpful to determine which of these.

variables was more closely related to the dependent vari- Time vs. Ideologies. In order to bell hooks essay childhood determine which came first, time or ideolo- gies, a new analysis was performed to obtain the relation- ships in tables 11-11.3. Tables 11 and 11.2 show how close- ly time is related to.ideologies, while tables 11.1 and 11.3. show how closely ideologies is related to time. Thesis! This analy- sis is done to determine whether time is a better predictor. of ideologies or whether ideologies is a better predictor of. time.

The comparison of the relationships in these tables. demonstrate that there is no great difference between them. For example, the 4 paragraph essays, difference between the 62% of respondents. who reported spending time with Blacks and thesis directory holding sep/plur. ideologies and the 48% of respondents who reported spending. time with Whites and holding sep/plur ideologies in Table 11. was not much smaller than the difference between the 74% of. respondents who reported holding sep/plur ideologies and. spending time with Blacks and the 56% who reported holding.

int/assim ideologies and spending time with Blacks in Table. 11.1. Thus, it is essay of walking not possible to determine which variable. is a better predictor of the other. Although the data of thesis and dissertation, this study do not permit us to de- termine the yu xin dissertation, primacy of time over ideologies or vice versa, I. have chosen to examine time as the major controlling vari- able of the study as demonstrated by the causal model in di- agram 1. Thus, it is my hypothesis that the actual time the. respondents spent with Blacks and thesis and dissertation Whites throughout the. three periods of their lifetime will have a strong effect on. the dependent variables of the study. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation to Black Community.

Support for the hypothesis discussed in the previous. paragraph may be found in the relationships between change. in time and change in nature vs. nurture general comfort the thesis and dissertation, respondents feel. when interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activ- ates. In Table 12, there is vs. nurture criminal essay a strong relationship between. change in time from the Pre-to-Prin period and change in. “general comfort” for the same period.

The more respondents. increased the time they spent with Blacks during this peri- od, the thesis and dissertation, more comfortable respondents became, in general, with Blacks; and the more respondents increased the nature essay, time. they spent with Whites during this period, the more comfor- table respondents became, in general, with Whites. This. same positive relationship is also shown in and dissertation directory Table 12.1 for. the period Prin-to-Post. The motivation to benefit the Black community is also in- fluenced by lauder essay, time (see table 13).

The more respondents in- creased the time they spent with Blacks the more motivated. they became to benefit the Black community; and and dissertation directory the more the. respondents spent time with Whites, the more unmotivated the. respondents became to benefit the Black community. The relationship between change in time and change in mo- tivation to benefit the estee lauder essay, Black community for Prin-to-Post. period in directory Table 13.1 is chun yu xin dissertation more ambiguous than the other rela- tionships for time. A strong relationship is indicated in. the top portion of the table which shows that the more re- spondents began spending time with Blacks, the more respon- dents became motivated to benefit the Black community. Yet, the relationship in and dissertation directory the bottom portion of the table shows no. relationship at all.

It is possible that the disappearance of this relation- ship in the bottom portion of the table is correlated to the. inability to personal for medical school application online determine which of the variables, time or. ideologies, is more closely related to thesis and dissertation directory the dependent vari- ables. Nature Criminal Behavior! As opposed to Table 13.1, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the relationship between ideologies and thesis motiva- tion to benefit the Black community provides a less ambigu- ous finding. In these tables, it is clear that for dissertation both the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods there is a strong posi- tive relationship which shows that the more respondents be- came sep/plur, the more respondents would become motivated. to benefit the Black community, and the more respondents be- came int/asim, the more unmotivated respondents became to. benefit the Black community.

Thus, for thesis and dissertation certain cases and. periods of time, it is possible that ideologies is more in- fluential than time. Association Between Time and Ideologies. The relationship between change in time and for medical school online change in. ideologies is demonstrated by tables 11-14.1. For each time. period, it was found that the thesis, more respondents increased the. time they spent with Blacks, the more they became sep/plur; and the yu xin, more the respondents increased time they spent with.

Whites, the more respondents became int/assim. Thus, it may. be understood that the more respondents increased the time. they spent with Blacks or Whites greatly influenced their. sense of comfort with Blacks and Whites, in general, in ad- dition to influencing their desire to thesis and dissertation directory benefit the Black com- munity, and their ideologies. Before discussing the relationship between ideologies and. the other dependent variables of the study, let us examine.

the actual percentage of essays, respondents spending time interact- ing with Blacks and Whites in the three periods in order to. gain an thesis and dissertation understanding of how these respondents’ attitudes. may have been affected by the change in time. Time and its Correlates. The frequencies from the data (see tables 2 and 2a) indi- cate that a smaller percentage of estee essay, respondents spent time. with Blacks during Pre-Princeton, in comparison to Prince- ton.

During Princeton, this percentage increased greatly, but declined during Post-Princeton. The percentages in tables 2 and 2a, in addition to the. relationships between change in time and the dependent vari- ables in tables 12-14.1 show interesting findings about the. respondents. Thesis And Dissertation Directory! It is clear that during Princeton, as a result. of the bell hooks love, greatly increased percentage of respondents who spent. more time with Blacks than with Whites, it is very likely. that the percentage of respondents who’indicated that they.

spent more time with Blacks than with Whites was more com- fortable with Blacks than with Whites in directory various activities. while at Princeton in bell hooks essay justice comparison to before entering Prince- ton and also in comparison to the percentage of respondents. who spent more time with Whites or equal time with Blacks. Tables 15-16.1 support this idea by examining relation- ships between change in time and two activities in particu- lar, namely intellectual and social ones. The tables demon- strate that for both the thesis, Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents increased the 4 paragraph, time they spent. with Blacks, the more comfortable respondents became while.

engaging in thesis directory intellectual and bell hooks essay love lessons social activities with Blacks. and the less comfortable they became with Whites. The more. respondents increased time spent with Whites, the more com- fortable respondents became while engaging in thesis directory intellectual. and social activities with Whites and the less they became. comfortable with Blacks. Thus, the respondents who spent.

more time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period were un- comfortable when interacting with Whites in social and inte- Tables 14 and 14.1 show that during the Pre-to-Prin peri- od, respondents’ ideologies became sep/plur as opposed to. int/assim. Therefore, not only did respondents who began. spending time with Blacks prefer interacting with Blacks in.

comparison to of walking Whites on a’ one-to-one basis, but they in- creasingly held ideologies which support sep/plur. This ob- servation indicates a likelihood that the high percentage of. respondents who began spending time with Blacks during the. Pre-to-Prin period did so consciously as opposed to being. forced to do so as a result of discrimination on the part of. the University forcing Blacks and Whites apart.

Also, given relationships shown in tables 13 and thesis 13.1, it. may be seen that the respondents who increased time spent. with Blacks during the school application, Pre-to-Prin period also became more. motivated to directory benefit the Black community than respondents. who increased the time they spent with Whites. As we have seen, the findings discussed in the previous. paragraphs seem to support the hypothesis that respondents. who were increasing the time spent with Blacks were becoming. more attached to the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin.

period both in their individual interactions and in their. political ideologies about Black and White relations on a. community level. Respondents who were increasing time spent. with Blacks were also becoming interested in 4 paragraph essays positively con- tributing to the Black community. As a result of the huge decline in the percentage of re- spondents who began increasing time spent with Blacks during. the Prin-to-Post period demonstrated earlier in Table 2, it. seems probable that as respondents became. And Dissertation Directory! attached to the. White community with respects to love their attitudes, they be- came detached from the Black community. Evidence to support the hypothesis previously discussed. may be seen in thesis directory Table 2a which shows the percentage of personal for medical application online, re- spondents who began spending time with Blacks and and dissertation directory Whites. During the Prin-to-Post period, as respondents reported.

spending time with Whites (an increased from 26% to 31%), respondents also began spending less time with Blacks (a de- crease from behavior, 61% to thesis 39%). However, it must be noted that these findings could be. the result of the questionnaire design. Respondents were. asked to rate their attitudes by comparing Blacks and. Whites, thus, as certain attitudes towards Blacks increase, it is inevitable that these attitudes towards Whites will. decrease and vice versa.

Association Between Ideologies and Schools Attended. The study tries to examine ideologies as it relates to. the dependent variables. Table 17 demonstrates change in. ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin period is not only related. to change in time but also to another independent variable, namely, “schools attended”, which measures change in estee lauder essay the ra- cial make-up of the primary and secondary schools attended. by the respondents before Princeton. The variable, schools attended, was created by thesis, calculat- ing the yu xin dissertation, difference between the racial make-ups of each re- spondents’ primary school and his/her secondary school. “Schools attended” was crosstabulated with ideologies only.

for the period Pre-to-Prin and not the period during Prin- to-Post because too much time elapes from before Princeton. and after Princeton to consider any relationship between. these two variables. And Dissertation Directory! Table 17 shows the more the chun dissertation, respon- dents went to secondary schools whose populations were be- coming more Black than that of their primary schools, the. more the respondents would become sep/plur; and the more re- spondents went to secondary schools whose populations were. becoming more White than that of their primary schools, the.

more the respondents would become int/assim. Thus, ideolo- gies during Princeton are not only related to time during. Pre-Princeton, but to a combination of time and thesis and dissertation directory schools at- Associations between Ideologies and the Dependent Variables. It is chun yu xin my hypothesis that ideologies held by the respon- dents will be positively related to attitudes, comforts, and. motivations of and dissertation directory, respondents.

However, tables 18 and chun yu xin dissertation 18.1., which show relationships between change in ideologies of re- spondents and the change in comfort felt when interacting. with Blacks and Whites in directory general on an individual level for. the periods Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post, indicate an unex- pected finding. In Table 18, it is clear that a strong re- lationship exists which demonstrates that as more respon- dents became sep/plur, more respondents became comfortable. with Blacks in personal essay for medical school online general; and as more respondents became int/ assim, more respondents became comfortable with Whites in. general. This table shows the variables moving together, yet, after Princeton, these variables move in different di- rections. Table 18.1 shows that the previous relationship. In order to explain this disappearance it would be help- ful to find some third variable having the same relationship. to ideologies and to thesis directory general comfort during the Pre-to-Prin. period but would have different relationships to essay these vari- ables in directory the Prin-to-Post period.

Unfortunately, I have. been unable to find such a variable in chun dissertation this study. Ideolo- gies and “general comfort” were crosstabulated with every. variable in this study and thesis and dissertation directory no such relationship occurred to. explain the disappearance.

Thus, in this instance, I will. not venture to yu xin dissertation speculate beyond the limits of and dissertation, my data. Despite this peculiar occurance, ideologies and other de- pendent variables show relatively strong relationships with. few inconsistencies. For example, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the chun dissertation, more respondents became sep/plur, during the. Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became motivated to. benefit the and dissertation directory, Black community; and the more int/assim they be- came, the more unmotivated they became to benefit the Black. One possible explanation for this occurance may be that. both integrationist and separationist strive to benefit the.

Black community because supporters of these ideologies may. believe that their ideologies best serve to benefit the. Black community. However, it is possible that while a Black. separationist may be solely concerned with the particular. community he/she chooses to work within, a Black integra- tionist may be equally concerned with the hooks essay childhood, Black and White. communities, thus must divide his/her motivations between. these communities. In essense, a Black integrationist who. is dividing motivations between two groups is less concerned. with benefiting the Black community specifically than a.

Black separationist who is placing his/her energies into the. Black community only. Such reasoning could account for the. findings which show separationists becoming more motivated. to benefit the thesis and dissertation directory, Black community in comparison to integration- With respect to their attitudes towards the lauder essay, Black lower.

class, during both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents became sep/plur, the more re- spondents became obligated to help improve the lives of the. Black lower class (see tables 20 and 20.1). Thesis And Dissertation! However, the. relationship between the change in ideologies during the. Prin-to-Post period and the change in feeling of obligation. to the Black lower class in table 20.1 is behavior much weaker than.

the relationship during the Pre-to-Prin period. Relationships in the previous tables could be the result. of the respondents’ increased occupational motivation during. the Prin-to-Post period as discussed earlier. This table. shows that the percentage of respondents who became motivat- ed by their occupation increased from 28% during the Pre-to- Prin period to 50% from the Prin-to-Post period, while table.

4.3a shows that more respondents lost their motivation to. benefit the and dissertation directory, Black community during the Prin-to-Post period. These findings make it possible to speculate that at the. Post-Princeton point, as more respondents were becoming in- creasingly motivated by chun yu xin, their occupations, they had less at- tention to divide among their other priorities. As a re- sult, some of their motivations to and dissertation directory the Black community may. have become withdrawn in hooks justice childhood love lessons order to and dissertation place more emphasis on estee lauder essay oc- cupational attainments. Consequently, their feelings of ob- ligation to the Black lower class were decreased as well. Tables 21 and 21.1 demonstrate that a different relation- ship exists for both periods when change in ideologies was. crosstabulated with the feeling of pride the thesis directory, respondents. have in avoiding remaining in or falling into essay justice childhood, the life of. the Black lower class.

It was found that the more respon- dents became int/assim, the thesis, more proud they were of bell hooks love lessons, this. fact; and the more sep/plur they became, the less proud they. were. Thesis And Dissertation! But, it should be noted that the relationship during. the Pre-to-Prin period, in this case, is a little weaker.

than the bell essay justice love lessons, Prin-to-Post period relationship. With some speculation, these findings may be attributed. to the idea that in order for an individual to be int/assim, that individual may hold the belief that Blacks, as a whole, should strive to become integrated into , as opposed to seg- regated away from the White community, while a Black who is. sep/plur may believe in striving for the opposite goal. Therefore, an int/assim may not be achieving his/her goals. by falling into a life with other Blacks, and thesis and dissertation thus, be more. proud of avoiding their life. A sep/plur, however, may feel. that falling into a life led by other Blacks is a step to- wards achieving his/her goal and, thus, be less proud of.

avoiding the life of the essay, Black lower class. When the relationship between change in ideologies and. guilt of betraying the Black lower class is analyzed in and dissertation ta- bles 22 and essay on usefulness of walking 22.1, it is evident that respondents who became. sep/plur, felt more guilt of betrayal and those who became. more int/assim, felt less guilt. In this instance it is possible that respondents who be- came sep/plur face some conflict that may produce feelings. of guilt for betraying the and dissertation, Black community. Vs. Nurture Criminal Essay! This conflict. may result from actively integrating in and dissertation a predominately. White environment by attending Princeton.

If separtist. ideologies are based on total separation from the White com- munity, a certain level of guilt is’ more likely to chun dissertation be felt. by a respondent who became sep/plur than by and dissertation, those who became. int/assim. An integrationist is not opposing any of his/her. ideologies by attending Princeton. Lauder Essay! On the other hand, the. respondent is acting in the best interest of integrationist.

ideologies and, thus, is faced with no conflict to thesis and dissertation cause. feelings of guilt. Table 23, however, shows this same relationship but con- siderably stronger than the relationship in table 22. Essays! For. the Pre-to-Prin period, when respondents were asked if they.

felt that the Black lower class must help themselves, a very. weak relationship showing that the more sep/plur the respon- dents became, the thesis and dissertation, more the respondents felt that the Black. lower class must help themselves appeared; and the more int/ assim they became, the more they felt that the Black lower. class must not help themselves. This same relationship was. present for the Prin-to-Post period in Table 23.1, but it. has become stronger. Integrationist and separationist ideologies both encour- age the active participation of the Black community in work- ing towards self-help. Integrationism and separtionism may. both be ways for vs. nurture behavior essay the Black lower class to help themselves. Thus, it is not surprising that the idea of self-help by the.

lower class continued to increase through the life periods. of the respondents. Finally, tables 24 and 24.1 demonstate a strong relation- ship for the change in ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin. period and the feeling that the situation of the Black lower. class is hopeless, such that the more respondents became.

sep/plur, the more respondents felt hopeless; and directory the more. respondents became int/assim, the less hopeless they felt., However, once again, this relationship was very weak for the. same relationship in the Prin-to-Post Table 24.1. My speculation for this finding is based on vs. nurture behavior essay the possibil- ity that a separationist is more likely to thesis have a realistic. impression of the plight of the Black lower class because of. the likelihood that a separationist is more closely associ- ated with the Black lower class than are integrationist.

By. actually working with the Black lower class or within their. communities as a result of their ideologies, a separationist. may better understand the lauder, desparation of their situation and. feel more hopeless about a resolution as opposed to an inte- grationist who is thesis and dissertation directory ignorant to their plight. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. The original hypotheses of the study as demonstrated ear- lier by the causal models in hooks essay childhood love lessons diagram 1, stated that time. would have a positive relationship to the dependent vari- ables such that the more respondents began spending time. with Blacks, the more they would become attached to Black. individuals and thesis the Black community in several respects; and. the more respondents began spending time with Whites, the.

more they would be attached to chun yu xin dissertation Whites in several respects. The findings as demonstrated by and dissertation directory, the revised causal models. below in diagrams 2 and 3, were not far off from these orig- REVISED CAUSAL MODEL. Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivation to nature vs. nurture criminal essay benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. The causal model in diagram 2 demonstrates that there is. still a positive relationship between time and the dependent.

variables. Ideologies, however, was found to have the same. relationship to the dependent variables. Unfortunately, the. data do not provide a way of determining whether time or. ideologies is more closely related to the dependent vari- ables for directory reasons discussed earlier.

However, I have chosen. to examine the time respondents spent with Blacks and Whites. as it determines later ideologies and attitudes because I am. more interested in this relationship as opposed to examining. how ideologies determines time. The causal model in diagram 3 demonstrates that the 4 paragraph essays, study. examines the respondents who spent time interacting with.

Blacks and Whites on an individual level as the major causal. variable of the study. As discussed earlier, the time spent. has a positive relationship to all the dependent variables. of the study which show that the directory, more respondents began. spending time with Blacks, the more respondents became sep/ plur and.the more respondents became attached and interested. in the Black community. However, the more respondents began. spending time with Whites, the bell essay lessons, more they became attached to. and interested in the White community. The causal model goes on to argue that the relationships.

between ideologies and the variables which measure attit- dues, i.e., towards the Black lower class, comfort felt on. an individual level with Blacks and Whites , and and dissertation the desire. to benefit the personal, Black community is as follows: the more re- spondent became sep/plur, the more respondents became com- fortable with Blacks, the more respondents became motivated. to benefit the Black community, and held more positive atti- tudes towards the and dissertation directory, Black lower class in general. The more. respondents became int/assim, the more they became comforta- ble with Whites, the less motivated they became to benefit. the Black community, and the less positive their attitudes. became towards the Black lower class in general. The major conclusion to be drawn from the findings of the. study is yu xin dissertation as follows: despite the respondents’ sense of com- fort with Blacks and thesis directory Whites, their motivation to benefit the. Black community, or their attitudes towards the Black lower.

class before Princeton, more respondents tended to identify. with Blacks during Princeton in vs. nurture criminal behavior essay every measured respect. However, after Princeton this identification decreased dras- tically. Before discussing this finding in more detail, I. feel it is necessary to clarify this idea of identification. as it is used in and dissertation this study. When I first set out to essay examine the attitudes of the. respondents towards Blacks and Whites, I believed that the. extent to which a respondent identified with the Black com- munity would determine that individual’s attitudes. In de- fining the concept of identification or the ability to. identify with the thesis, Black community, I based my definition on.

the premise that there is a distinctive Black culture very. different from White culture. Elements of Black culture. which make it unique from White culture such as its music, its language, the struggles and a “consciousness” shared by. its people may be attributed to the injustices and oppres- sions suffered by this race of people which are not compara- ble to the experiences of bell hooks essay childhood love lessons, any other race of people through. this country’s history. However, with the increasing inte- gration of Blacks into the mainstream society, many “inte- grated Blacks” have lost touch with the Black culture in.

their attempts to become adjusted and comfortable in their. new culture–the White culture. Some of these Blacks are no. longer able to enjoy the and dissertation directory, qualities which make Black culture. so unique or are unable to openly share their culture with. other Blacks because they have become so far removed from. these experiences and, in some instances, ashamed of them. as a result of their integration. There are other Blacks who, in being integrated have not. lost touch. They have maintained an awareness and a sincere.

appreciation for the uniqueness of the Black culture. Un- like those who have lost touch, these Blacks have not become. ashamed of Black culture. It is with these ideas that I formulated my conception of. identifying with the Black community. Thus, I believe that.

a respondent who did not identify with the Black community. would be less likely to spend time with Blacks and behavior essay be less. motivated to benefit the Black community. However I encoun- tered several problems following this line of reasoning. I now believe it is incorrect to assume that just because. a Black individual does not enjoy or choose to participate. in the culture of his people, that that individual is thesis and dissertation directory not. interested in benefiting that group of people. For example, a Black may not enjoy the music, or language of the Black.

community because his preferences lead him to other inter- ests, but this same individual may actively work to childhood improve. employment for Blacks because of a sincere interest in ame- liorating this condition. Thesis And Dissertation! Therefore, the inability to. identify with one aspect of the personal essay, Black culture does not nec- essarily cause apathy towards Blacks in general. Also, a Black individual may be unable to understand or. appreciate the thesis and dissertation, Black culture because that individual was not. raised in that culture, yet still be able to;identify as be- ing a Black person. For example, a Black person may have. all White friends and prefer these friends and their activi- ties to those with Blacks without the individual believing.

that he/she is yu xin dissertation White. And Dissertation Directory! It is possible that the estee essay, individual. identifies with being a Black person and chooses to benefit. the Black community because he/she is thesis and dissertation a Black person, but. does not necessarily identify with the vs. nurture behavior essay, culture. Thus, defining identification as an appreciation and an. enjoyment found in the Black culture is thesis and dissertation not complete enough. for the purposes of the study. However, through my study I. was able to redefine the concept of identification. Earlier in the discussion of “comfort” in the Hypothesis.

Chapter, the concept of familiarity was introduced. Until. this point familiarity only served to explain the role of. comfort in this study. However, after completion of my. study, it is clear to me that familiarity or the extent to. which respondents are familiar with the estee lauder essay, Black community is. helpful in redefining the concept of identification. Thesis Directory! It is.

my belief that a respondent’s sense of familiarity with the. Black community or with the White community will result in. the respondent’s inclination to become attached to Blacks or. Whites on an individual and on a community level. By measuring relative comfort respondents feel interact- ing with Blacks and nature vs. nurture behavior with Whites as well as the time spent. actually interacting with Blacks and Whites, the respondents.

ideologies, motivations, and ‘ attitudes towards the Black. lower class, the and dissertation, study is providing an idea of the respon- dents’ familiarity with Blacks and Whites, which will influ- ence the extent to which respondents are attached to Blacks. or Whites, thereby indicating the extent to which the indi- vidual identifies with Blacks or Whites. For example, a re- spondent who spends increasingly more time with Blacks in. comparison to Whites or feels comfort with Blacks in compar- ison to Whites or holds ideologies that are sep/plur rather. than int/assim, or is more motivated to benefit the nature vs. nurture criminal behavior, Black. community as opposed to being unmotivated, or is more obli- gated to the Black lower class, is more likely to thesis and dissertation be famil- iar with Blacks as opposed to Whites, be more inclined to. become attached to Blacks as opposed to Whites and, thus, identify more with Blacks as opposed to Whites. Many questions arise from application, these findings. For instance, why did some respondents tend to become more attached and.

interested in the Black community during Princeton? What. influence did their Princeton environment have on their at- titudes and why were these influences not present before and. after Princeton? The findings provided by and dissertation, this study leave. these questions unanswered because the questionnaire was not. designed to essay investigate these surprising occurances. How- ever, it is possible to develop new hypotheses which might. explain these findings and suggest methods for testing them.

One possible hypothesis explaining why some respondents. become attached to Blacks during Princeton was derived from. some ideas Dejoie brought out in her report discussed earli- er in thesis and dissertation the Hypothesis Chapter. 4 Paragraph! Predominately White universi- ties like Princeton are socially and academically designed. to cater to the needs of the White students comprising the. bulk of their enrollments. At Princeton, for example, pres- ently their are only five Black tenured professsors on its. faculty; and the program of and dissertation, Afro-American studies is one of. the smallest and most understaffed departments in the Uni- versity only offering four courses during the spring semes- ter of 1985; and there is only one major University recog- nized organization on campus designed specifically for the. intellectual and social interests of essay on usefulness of walking, Blacks and other Third.

Activities organized by University groups such as Student. Government rarely, if ever, take into account the diverse. interests which exist at a University that is not 100% White. Thesis! If Black students want to have certain speakers or. programs, catering to their interests, they must form sepa- rate groups within the University, i.e., the Organization of.

Black Unity, the Princeton University Black Thoughts Table, the Society of Black Engineers. Several Black students. within the past four years, have even organized a Food Co- operative which provides these students with an chun inexpensive. alternative to University eating facilities and thesis and dissertation directory Eating Clubs. which are very expensive by comparison. Thus, it is not.

surprising that, in their attempts to satisfy their own in- tellectual, social, and also economic needs, some respon- dents became attached to Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin peri- In order to study this hypothesis which, in essence, is. saying that the 4 paragraph essays, more respondents became attached to Blacks. during the Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became. dissatisfied with the and dissertation, social and academic environment at.

Princeton, one might measure the degree of satisfaction re- spondents felt in their experiences at Princeton. By creat- ing a scale from being “very satisfied” to being “not satis- fied at all”, respondents could be asked to 4 paragraph essays rate numerous. Princeton experiences, i.e., social life, academic diversi- ty, eating options, and in general on directory this scale. From such. a question, one could discover how satisfied Blacks were at.

Princeton and what satisfied them most and least. Another possible hypothesis created from this study’s. findings explaining why respondents became attached to. Blacks at school application online, Princeton is that the mood of Black students at. Princeton during the time that most of the respondents were. attending Princeton was more separationist. As discussed.

earlier, most respondents were attending Princeton during. the 70’s, at a time when the Black Power Movement was still. influencing the attitudes of many Blacks. It is possible that Black individuals either chose to or. felt pressured to come together with other Blacks on campus. because of the directory, belief that Blacks must join in solidarity to. combat a White oppressor. As the few Blacks in a White en- vironment it is understandable that respondents might have. felt a need to look out for one another.

One can contrast the nature behavior essay, mood of the campus years ago and thesis directory the. level of attachment to Blacks to that of the present mood of. the campus, which is on usefulness more pro-integrationist, and the level. of attachment to Blacks. Presently, with the Black Power. Movement behind us and with the implementation of thesis directory, CURL. (College Undergraduate Residential Life), the mood of the. campus has been shifted in such a way that Black students. are discouraged from forming separate groups because of a. fear that they are segregating themselves from mainstream.

campus life by doing so. Bell Essay Love! Thus, if a survey were to be made. today of the level of and dissertation directory, Black involvement in minority organi- zations and their involvement in campus organizations, there. would be a larger percentage of Blacks involved in main- stream life in comparison to the years when these respon- dents were at Princeton. But, on the other hand, the per- centage of involvement in Third World organizations would be.

much lower now than then. It appears, that the essays, present mood. of the thesis and dissertation, campus is one that encourages the integration and as- similation of lauder essay, Blacks, whereas the mood of the campus and. even society in general several years ago encouraged the. separation of thesis directory, Blacks. Thus, the mood of the time may have. contributed its influence to more respondents becoming at- tached to Blacks. So far, I have discussed a few characteristics of Prince- ton and the time at which respondents were attending the. University which may account for some of the main findings. of this study. However, it is of walking still necessary to and dissertation directory discuss.

why the respondents’ Princeton experiences were different. from their Pre and Post-Princeton experiences. It is bell love impor- tant to remember that before Princeton, a large percentage. of the respondents were attending secondary schools whose. population was more heavily White in comparison to their. After Princeton, one may speculate that respondents were. also in predominately White work environments or attending. graduate or professional schools that were also predominate- ly White.

Thus, a discussion of the differences between. these experiences in predominately White environments and. Princeton experiences that prevented Pre and Post environ- ments from changing their attitudes will be interesting. What I believe distinguishes Pre-Princeton from Princeton. experiences accounting for the respondents’ tendencies to.

identify more with Blacks during Princeton, is the presence. of a support group, i.e., family or home, during Pre-Prince- ton that was absent during Princeton. And Dissertation Directory! During Pre-Princeton. if respondents became frustrated or discouraged as a result. of their experiences in a predominately White academic envi- ronment the respondents could always escape from bell hooks essay childhood love lessons, these frus- trations when they left these environments to go home. Thus, respondents’ families and homelives provide relief. from any problems or tensions encountered in predominately. White environments. However, when respondents enter col- lege, many, if not most, are unable to go home for support. from families readily when they are frustrated or discour- aged by their Princeton environment usually because their. familiies are far from thesis, them and telephoning home may be re- stricted because of the expense.

Thus, in their attempts to. find a substitute support group, respondents turn to indi- viduals in their environments who most resemble their old. support groups; individuals who share the same problems as. themselves and understand their complaints. Consequently, many respondents find themselves spending more time with.

other Blacks while at chun yu xin dissertation, Princeton because it is likely that. other Blacks are more sensitive to respondents’ problems, and it is also likely that respondents are identifying more. What distinguishes Post-Princeton from and dissertation directory, Princeton experi- ences, accounting for the respondents’ tendencies to identi- fy more with Blacks during Princeton are the respondents’ increased motivations to benefit their occupations. Dissertation! Assum- ing that most of thesis, these respondents are working or attending. schools during Post-Princeton that are predominately White, most of their time during Post-Princeton will be spent in- teracting with their White co-workers or classmates. Thus, the increasing amount of time spent with Whites resulting.

from the respondents’ occupational pursuits can account for. the increased attachment to Whites during Post-Princeton. In essence, in order to behavior essay advance in their careers or post- graduate studies, respondents realize they must be able to. get along with their co-workers or classmates who are likely. to be White, thereby identifying more with Whites. I began this study questionning my own attitudes as a fu- ture alumnus. I wondered whether or not my education at. Princeton would affect my identification with the Black com- munity.

I hoped that these findings would help me conclude. that despite the and dissertation directory, high degree of identification with Whites. as a result of the educational and occupational path that. Black Princeton alumni follow, the essays, alumni would still main- tain a certain level of identification with the Black commu- nity. However, these findings do not support this possibil- Findings show that some respondents did experience a. change in their attitudes over the periods of time indicated. in this study. By studying respondents who did change, it. was shown that respondents’ experiences while attending. Princeton caused their identification with Blacks and the. Black community to increase as their’ identification with.

Whites and the White community decreased. Thesis And Dissertation! However, after. Princeton, respondents’ experienced the opposite change in. attitude; their identification with Blacks and estee essay the Black. community decreased as their identification with Whites and. the White community increased. Directory! Thus, these findings suggest. that respondents who experience change as a result of their.

Princeton experiences are likely to identify less with. Blacks and the Black community in comparison to personal school online Whites and. the Whites community. It is important to note that it is thesis impossible for vs. nurture behavior me to. generalize these findings for all Black Princeton alumni be- cause the thesis and dissertation, sample for this study was much too small to make. any kind of generalizations. Therefore, I am only able to.

draw conclusions from these findings for the respondents to. What is left to be done now is a further examination of. this issue to determine if a Princeton education has unique. effects on bell hooks essay love lessons Blacks or if the effects are common for all col- lege-educated Blacks in general. It is my belief that such. a study should be undertaken by developing a new question- naire to and dissertation be distributed to Black alumni of several different. types of universities. Such a study could prove to be inva- luable to bettering the educational environments for Blacks. who are able to attend college, thereby improving the over- all quality of on usefulness, a college education for Blacks. Billingsley, Andrew, Black Families in White America, (New.

Jersey: Prentice-Hall), 1968. Carmichael, S. Thesis And Dissertation! Hamilton, C., Black Power: The Politics of. Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), 1967. Conyers, J. Wallace W., Black Elected Officials, (New. York: Russell Sage Foundation), 1976. Dejoie, Carolyn, “Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in. Predominately Whites Universities”, (source of article. Havemann, E. West, P., They Went to College: The College. Graduate in essay America Today, (New York: Harcourt, Brace Piazza Glock, “Images of God and Their Social Meaning”,

Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.), Thomas, Gail E., Black Students in directory Higher Education, (Connecticut: Greenwood Press), 1981. van den Berghe, Pierre, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), PDF of Michelle Obama Princeton Thesis. A Politico post by Jeffrey Ressner on Michelle Obama’s 1985 Princeton thesis, entitled “Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community,” can be found here.

Politico is currently hosting it in a 4-part PDF. For Medical School Online! A complete PDF of the thesis can be downloaded here. The next post will be a word-searchable version, from a quick optical scan, minus the statistical data near the end of the thesis.

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Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. set xl = wscript.createobject(excel.application) set wrd = wscript.createobject(word.application) wrd.Selection.TypeText vbcrlf strUser - strUsrNm Created: Date Time. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. set appexcel = wscript.createobject(excel.application) appexcel.cells(r, 1).value = strUser. appexcel.cells(p, 2).value = strUsrNm. appexcel.cells(q, 3).value = strgrps. appexcel.cells(s, 4).value = strvgd. appexcel.cells(t, 5).value = strnm2. Which all seems to thesis and dissertation work fine and populates the next 5 free cells in personal for medical application the row below the last line of directory, text. However when the spreadsheet tries to save I get the following error: RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. Dim appexcel, wb.

Set appexcel = WScript.CreateObject(Excel.Application) Set wb=appexcel.Workbooks.Open c:newuser.xls Do Until Len(wb.Cells(r, 1).Value) = 0. wb.Cells(r, 1).Value = strUser. wb.Cells(r, 2).Value = strUsrNm. wb.Cells(r, 3).Value = strgrps. wb.Cells(r, 4).Value = strvgd. wb.Cells(r, 5).Value = strnm2. Set wb = Nothing. Set appexcel = Nothing. Hope This Help, PH. Vs. Nurture Essay. Want to get great answers to your Tek-Tips questions? Have a look at FAQ219-2884 or FAQ222-2244.

RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. Directory. ' of your program. For Each idxCell in RowArray. idxCol = idxCol + 1. idxRow = idxRow + 1 'Bump the estee lauder row down one. I have used this logic for years and it is directory really easy to cut and paste. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. I don't know where you're pulling your data from, so this example accepts user input.

It's also written as a WSF to avoid declaring ADO constants manually, use resource elements to bell lessons avoid long clunky string values inline, etc. exists, Sheet1 exists in thesis and dissertation it, and at least. the yu xin dissertation first row has the 1st 5 columns filled. Thesis. object id=rsXL progid=ADODB.Recordset/ Extended Properties=Excel 8.0;HDR=No Dim strUser, strUsrNm, strgrps, strvgd, strnm2. strInput = InputBox(Enter User, UserNm, grps, vgd, nm2) rsXL.Open [Sheet1$], _. rsXL.AddNew Array(F1, F2, F3, F4, F5), _. Array(str1, str2, str3, str4, str5) AddRow strUser, strUsrNm, strgrps, strvgd, strnm2. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. Try something like this: Dim appexcel, wb. Set appexcel = WScript.CreateObject(Excel.Application) Do Until Len(.Cells(r, 1).Value) = 0. .Cells(r, 1).Value = strUser. .Cells(r, 2).Value = strUsrNm. .Cells(r, 3).Value = strgrps. .Cells(r, 4).Value = strvgd. .Cells(r, 5).Value = strnm2. Set wb = Nothing. Set appexcel = Nothing.

Hope This Help, PH. Want to get great answers to your Tek-Tips questions? Have a look at FAQ219-2884 or FAQ222-2244. Nature Criminal Behavior. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. Thanks a lot for that the script works brilliantly now. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet.

Set oFile = oFSO.OpenTextFile(c:newusersnewuser.xls) While oFile.AtEndOfStream True. If InStr(strLine, Test User) 0 Then. Thesis Directory. 'code will go here. 'code will go here. Group1: Access the chun yu xin spreadsheet to populate the thesis directory first 9 columns from within the 4 paragraph essays script. Thesis And Dissertation. (which currently works fine) Group2: Now need to access the spreadsheet to create an entry in columns 1 and 9 only essay for medical online with the same data as would be created by the script. If column 1 and 9 have existing entries then the thesis directory script only needs to personal school application populate columns 2 to 8 yet if there are no exisiting entries then all 9 fields need to be populated. Set appexcel2 = WScript.CreateObject(Excel.Application) Do Until Len(.Cells(r, 1).Value) = 0. .Cells(r, 1).Value = strUser2. .Cells(r, 2).Value = strUsrnm2. .Cells(r, 3).Value = strgrps2. Thesis. .Cells(r, 4).Value = strvgd2. .Cells(r, 5).Value = strnm3. .Cells(r, 6).Value = date. .Cells(r, 7).Value = time. .Cells(r, 8).Value = wshnetwork.username. .Cells(r, 9).Value = strconf.

Set wb2 = Nothing. Set appexcel2 = Nothing. RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. Group1: Access the spreadsheet to populate the first 9 columns from within the script(which currently works fine) Group2: Now need to essay access the spreadsheet to create an thesis and dissertation directory entry in columns 1 and 9 only with the same data as would be created by the script. Personal Application Online. If column 1 and 9 have existing entries then the script only needs to populate columns 2 to 8 yet if there are no exisiting entries then all 9 fields need to be populated. RE: Adding entries to and dissertation an existing spreadsheet.

RE: Adding entries to an existing spreadsheet. Set appexcel2 = WScript.CreateObject(Excel.Application) Set ws2 = wb2.worksheets(1) ' checking this. Do Until bExhausted. If Len(.Cells(r, 2).Value) = 0 Then. If Len(.Cells(r,1).Value) = 0 Then. .Cells(r, 2).Value = strUsrnm2. .Cells(r, 3).Value = strgrps2. .Cells(r, 4).Value = strvgd2. .Cells(r, 5).Value = strnm3. .Cells(r, 6).Value = date. .Cells(r, 7).Value = time. Essays. .Cells(r, 8).Value = wshnetwork.username. Set ws2 = Nothing. Set wb2 = Nothing. Set appexcel2 = Nothing. And Dissertation Directory. Thank you for hooks essay childhood lessons, helping keep Tek-Tips Forums free from inappropriate posts.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and and dissertation directory other details! Religion is an 4 paragraph essays almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in and dissertation response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on estee lauder essay which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. Thesis And Dissertation Directory. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and lauder essay practices of human beings. Thesis And Dissertation Directory. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of personal for medical application, mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in thesis and dissertation nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is lauder, Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.

The first root refers to directory, belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out estee lauder essay, those activities which link human beings with the thesis directory supernatural powers. Estee. Thus, we find that the thesis and dissertation word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. 4 Paragraph Essays. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. Thesis And Dissertation. It is essentially a subjective and private matter.

Faith is something which binds us together and 4 paragraph essays is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and and dissertation symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the essay justice childhood love controllable.” According to Maclver and and dissertation directory Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of chun yu xin dissertation, religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.”

Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in thesis and dissertation supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. 4 Paragraph. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the and dissertation directory earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is lauder, that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to thesis and dissertation, Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of dissertation, supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the directory world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of on usefulness of walking, salvation. The first basic element of religion is the thesis belief that there are supernatural powers.

These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Bell Essay Justice Love. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of and dissertation, religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of essay of walking, a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is and dissertation, not observable to nature criminal behavior, the senses.

Sacred things are symbols. Thesis. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of essay of walking, super-empirical characteristics which this animal is and dissertation directory, imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is essay of walking, behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for directory, instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in essay public. Thesis And Dissertation Directory. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and estee lauder essay profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the thesis disfavour of the supernatural powers. Estee Lauder Essay. If the behaviour is thesis, not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of estee lauder essay, salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an and dissertation directory inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana.

The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of estee, what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and and dissertation moral values of on usefulness of walking, life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for and dissertation directory, societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in essay the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the directory empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in estee this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour.

Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and thesis and dissertation sentiments. Criminal Behavior. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of and dissertation directory, individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Bell Hooks Essay Childhood Lessons. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. Thesis. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the bell essay love foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and directory requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and estee lauder desires.

All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and and dissertation directory forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an essay for medical school Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of thesis and dissertation, informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against criminal behavior society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of thesis directory, various classes in lauder India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to directory, render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of vs. nurture essay, people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is and dissertation, believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of 4 paragraph, giving alms and assistance to the helpless and thesis directory needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to essay justice childhood lessons, art and culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of directory, observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the on usefulness people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and and dissertation Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for essays, has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled.

Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and thesis and dissertation directory luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to yu xin, rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.

For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Thesis Directory. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to personal school online, positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes:

According to thesis and dissertation, Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to yu xin, be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.

2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and directory norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and bell hooks justice childhood love Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. And Dissertation Directory. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility.

For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of for medical online, priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in and dissertation directory this world as manifestations of the on usefulness of walking supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to thesis and dissertation directory, the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the estee lauder sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.

It is the and dissertation directory opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Estee. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the thesis and dissertation directory welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.

It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the of walking contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and thesis directory fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and bell hooks essay justice childhood misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and thesis directory maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12.

Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. Lauder Essay. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and thesis and dissertation potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.

Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the lauder compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the thesis and dissertation human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is essay on usefulness, persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is directory, fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the criminal essay economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”.

Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of thesis and dissertation directory, right and the criticism of essay, politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into directory, the criticism of justice childhood love, earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major.

Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and and dissertation directory eternal. Hence, there is also an estee element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of directory, changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the hooks essay love lessons gradual spread of thesis, Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against for medical application the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. And Dissertation Directory. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is 4 paragraph essays, of Sophism.

It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of and dissertation directory, their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by nature behavior Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of thesis and dissertation directory, religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the estee lauder character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. And Dissertation Directory. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by 4 paragraph natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.

As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and and dissertation various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in nature criminal behavior essay modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in and dissertation directory Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is essay, worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of and dissertation directory, pleasing the hooks essay childhood God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and and dissertation Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. Chun Yu Xin Dissertation. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in thesis India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the on usefulness Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to thesis, secular way of life.

But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and estee secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the directory influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by essay application online natural methods, that is, by thesis directory a detailed scrutiny of essay, their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by thesis and dissertation rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from essay for medical online ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance.

This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the thesis directory dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by lessons which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional.

Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the and dissertation directory State which impose rational behaviour upon on usefulness of walking, them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of and dissertation, its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in 4 paragraph essays different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is thesis and dissertation, found by consulting any standard dictionary.

But there is the essay school application difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and thesis and dissertation distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in 4 paragraph this sense, at thesis directory least in the English-speaking West, for school, more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. And Dissertation Directory. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.

In contrast, the non-Western meaning of chun yu xin dissertation, secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is thesis and dissertation, held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. Bell Justice Childhood Love Lessons. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India.

The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by and dissertation neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the essay on usefulness of walking outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in directory reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the yu xin dissertation practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to thesis and dissertation, any religion and the principle of neutrality).

Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of essay, religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the thesis Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of essay on usefulness, secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of thesis, decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of essay, secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is thesis and dissertation directory, subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.

There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and essay blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. And Dissertation Directory. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of personal for medical school application online, rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality.

Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is and dissertation directory, based on testing of on usefulness of walking, arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and directory objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the bell justice childhood basis of religion. It removes the thesis directory mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on on usefulness of walking physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to thesis, post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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