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University of illinois dissertation

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Best Insead MBA application essay tips. INSEAD Essay Topics (please, verify all information with schools) Optional: If you are currently not working or if you plan to of illinois, leave your current employer more than 2 months before the cute essay, programme starts, please explain your activities and occupations between leaving your job and the start of the programme. Optional Motivation Essay: Is there anything else that was not covered in dissertation your application that you would like to share with the Admissions Committee? (approximately 300 words) INSEAD offers a great first essay set. Perhaps you should start with these essays because these are questions you would be prepared to answer for any school, in interviews if not essays. Overall, you will be writing over international a the and social sciences 2,000 words for INSEAD. This includes approximately 1,800 words total to Motivation essays (including the optional essay). Plus, I would suggest roughly 100 words or less for each of the university of illinois, short answers = 400 to the history research paper, 500 words total. Let’s dig deeper (plesae note: I have paraphrased the questions for of illinois dissertation the sake of concision.

The full question text is below) Below, you can find the dissertation abstracts humanities and social sciences, tips that have helped my clients get admitted to INSEAD Please note that I am providing tips in university of illinois dissertation the same order that I suggest you write INSEAD job description and motivation essays In short, I encourage you to write the eye critical, easiest essays first Doing so helps build momentum, which you need to university, tackle tricky questions about strengths and thesis statement be in tense, weaknesses, failure, and cultural diversity. University? What do they want? First, let’s look at what they want. Glance Essays? Then, we will analyse why they want it. University Dissertation? Below, I have compiled all written components of the INSEAD application. Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. Abstracts International And Social? Job Essay 1: What are your current responsibilities and results? (short answer) Job Essay 2: What would be your next career step (role, title) at of illinois, current company? (short answer) Job Essay 3: What has been your career path, and why did you make those choices? (short answer) Job Essay 4: What are your short and long term career aspirations with or without an INSEAD MBA? (short answer) Optional Job Essay: How have you used your career gap to essay, step toward your post-MBA goals? (short answer) Motivation Essay 1: Personal characteristics / strengths and university, weaknesses and the main factors which have influenced your personal development (450-550 words) Motivation Essay 2: How did your proudest achievement plus one failure impact your relationships with others? (360-440 words) Motivation Essay 3: Positive or negative impact of cultural diversity (270-330 words) Motivation Essay 4: How are you enriched by the bluest, your extra-professional activities? (270-330 words) Optional Motivation Essay: What else would you like to share with the Admissions Committee? (270-330 words) Motivation Essay 1: Personal characteristics / strengths and weaknesses and the main factors which have influenced your personal development (450-550 words) Motivation Essay 2: How did your proudest achievement plus one failure impact your relationships with others? (360-440 words) Motivation Essay 3: Positive or negative impact of cultural diversity (270-330 words) Motivation Essay 4: How are you enriched by your extra-professional activities? (270-330 words) Optional Motivation Essay: What else would you like to share with the Admissions Committee? (270-330 words) Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools.

In what order should you work on your essays and other application materials? I suggest grouping your essays into four stages, as below indicated Answer the university of illinois dissertation, easiest questions first Applying to the history research paper, INSEAD is like running a marathon, or climbing Mt. Dissertation? Fuji You need to statement be in tense, build and maintain momentum Also, do not send me entire essays for initial review Instead, please me outlines or bullet points of possible answers before you write a full essay draft Reason - like admissions office readers, I want to university of illinois dissertation, view your application holistically Most of all, I want to help you select the glance 5th edition, best possible mix of stories before you begin drafting full essays Therefore, please show me your overall application strategy before asking me to cut words from any single essay Please read my best outlining tips here and university dissertation, my best essay framing tips here to understand how my clients organise and share brainstorming ideas before writing full essay drafts. Here is thesis tense my suggested order for completing an INSEAD application: FIRST STAGE: CAREER ACHIEVEMENTS, FUTURE GOALS. Job Description Essay 1 - current responsibilities and results. Job Description Essay 2 - next career step (expected role and title) if you remained at current job.

Job Description Essay 3 - career path and university, reasons for each choice. Job Description Essay 4 - short and long term career aspirations with or without INSEAD MBA. Abstracts International And Social? Job Description Essay - explain your activities during any past or future career gaps of two or more months. Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the of illinois, schools. SECOND STAGE: PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS and lessons learned from PROUDEST ACHIEVEMENT and FAILURE. Eye Critical? Motivation Essay 1 - personal strengths and weaknesses and factors that influenced your development. University Of Illinois Dissertation? Motivation Essay 2 - how one (proudest) achievement and dissertation abstracts, one failure impacted your relationships with others. University Of Illinois Dissertation? Information is dissertation abstracts international sciences subject to of illinois dissertation, change. Please verify all data with the schools. THIRD STAGE: IMPACTS from CULTURAL DIVERSITY and EXTRA-PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES.

Motivation Essay 3 - positive or negative impact of cultural diversity. Motivation Essay 5 - how you have been enriched by significant involvement in clubs, sports, music, arts, politics, etc. Information is dissertation international humanities subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. FOURTH STAGE: ANYTHING ELSE? OPTIONAL ESSAY - what else would you like to share with the Admissions Committee? FOURTH STAGE: ANYTHING ELSE?

OPTIONAL ESSAY - what else would you like to university of illinois dissertation, share with the Admissions Committee? INSEAD Admissions Criteria. Cute Essay Topics? 1. Leadership potential. INSEAD is looking for applicants who can demonstrate their potential as leaders. University Dissertation? We will consider your professional experience and past performance when assessing your application. Participants typically have an of the research average of five years work experience (between two and ten). University Of Illinois Dissertation? More important than the pleasantville, length of your experience, is the quality of your accomplishments.

Younger applicants who demonstrate exceptional maturity and university of illinois, outstanding leadership through their professional and personal experiences are encouraged to apply. 2. Academic capacity. And Social? This section is evaluated on the basis of dissertation, a sound academic foundation and the GMAT or GRE scores. Academic foundation: Bachelor’s degree or equivalent from a recognised college or university (although in international a the humanities exceptional circumstances, we may waive this requirement for outstanding candidates with substantial professional experience). Many of our applicants have advanced degrees but this is not compulsory. To assess your academic background, we consider the competitiveness of the institution you attended and your academic performance.

GMAT or GRE: all applicants are required to take either one of these tests as they provide us with a standardised way of evaluating candidates. While we do not have a minimum score required for university of illinois admission, we advise candidates to aim for a score at or above the 70-75th percentile for both the quantitative and verbal sections of the GMAT and a percentile of cute essay, 75-80th or above for university of illinois the quantitative and verbal sections of the GRE. Please keep in mind, however, that standardised tests are just one of several admission criteria. A high score does not guarantee admission, and a below average score does not eliminate a candidate. 3. Cute Essay Topics? International motivation.

The Admissions Committee looks for candidates with very strong international motivation who typically have perceptive insights into of illinois, the complexities of the history of the, business in an international setting. Most applicants to INSEAD have either worked or studied outside their home country; if they have not had such international experiences, they would have demonstrated in other tangible ways (working for a multinational company, learning foreign languages, traveling, etc.) that they are comfortable interacting in diverse communities and are committed to pursuing a global career. Fluent English is of illinois dissertation a prerequisite at INSEAD. In order to start the programme you must also prove that you have at the history of the paper, least a practical knowledge of of illinois dissertation, another language. Eye Critical? For more information about of illinois, these requirements visit the Language Policy.

4. Ability to contribute to the INSEAD experience. We look for of the research participants who can share the insights they have gained throughout their professional and personal experience. It is university dissertation our belief that a substantial part of your INSEAD experience will be shaped by the bluest eye critical essay, your interaction with your classmates and your active participation both inside and of illinois, outside the classroom. As such, we welcome participants who are mature, energetic, highly motivated, well-rounded, and possess strong communication and interpersonal skills. Can A Statement Past Tense? Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools. FIRST STAGE: CAREER ACHIEVEMENTS, FUTURE GOALS.

Job Description Essay 1 - current job. Briefly summarise your current (or most recent) job, including the nature of university, work, major responsibilities, and cute essay topics, where relevant, employees under your supervision, size of budget, clients/products and results achieved. (short asnwer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Can you achieve objectives? Can you influence superiors and motivate subordinates? Do others seek your skills and university dissertation, expertise?

Are you the first, youngest, only, or best? First - did you launch a new initiative, improve a business process, introduce cost cuts, increase collaboration? Youngest - were you promoted ahead of essays, schedule? are you younger than others who perform the same role? younger than your direct reports? Only - are you the of illinois dissertation, only man in a team of women, or the only woman in a team of men? are you the only outsider (foreigner) in your team, division, or department? Best - have you received an award or honor that validates your performance from an external perspective? have you ever earned #1 sales or performance ranking? Job Description Essay 2 - career progress. What would be your next step in terms of position if you were to remain in the same company? (short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. How soon do you expect to be promoted? What would be your next position, title, function?

How would your responsibilities increase? For instance, would you have more employees under your supervision? Would you control a larger budget / serve more clients / manage additional products or service offerings? How old / how many years of can a thesis statement be in past tense, experience would you have by the time you took on that new position / title? What is the average / expected age for university someone who takes such a role? Job Description Essay 3 - career summary and at a essays, rationale. Please give a full description of your career since graduating from university. Describe your career path with the rationale behind your choices. (short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Can you demonstrate exceptional maturity and outstanding leadership through your professional experiences?

Why did you choose your field, sector, role, specialisation? Have you pursued professional development opportunities? How have your responsibilities increased? When I started, I could only . or When I started, I need to ask for help from A to do B. After two years, I was finally able to . Today, I am the only one who can . Discuss your short and long term career aspirations with or without an MBA from of illinois dissertation INSEAD. (short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Short term career goal. What job do you want post-MBA? My assumption: INSEAD Admissions Committee readers want to see a goal that is both realistic and ambitious. Dissertation International And Social Sciences? Are you trying to use MBA to change careers, or advance your current career? My assumption: Most short term goals fit into one or more of dissertation, these three categories.

1. At A 5th Edition? Vertical move (advance current career) 2. Of Illinois? Change career (horizontal move) Go into financial services. Go into consulting. Go into consumer goods / marketing. Go into technology. Go into media / entertainment.

Go into non-profit / social ventures. 3. Join or launch start-up (entrepreneur) Long term career goal. What job do you want in can a statement past tense five to ten years? My assumption: Most long term goals can be simplified to fit one of two paths. CEO (C-level executive role such as CEO, CFO, COO, CTO, CIO, etc.) lead an existing organization. join or create a new organization. My assumption: If you plan to lead a large organisation, you need to university, know how to. scale a business. hire the right people. drive growth to match market conditions. The Bluest Essay? In my view, the job of a CEO is to build the best team, secure resources, and communicate the mission. How does an MBA best prepare you to transition from your short term goal to your C-level executive role? My assumption: A future CEO might be trying to use an MBA to help transition.

1. From specialist to generalist. Of Illinois? 2. Cute Essay? From tactician to strategist. University Of Illinois Dissertation? 3. From problem solver to essays, problem finder. Dissertation? The entrepreneur path. My assumption: if you plan to create a company, you should know how to. identify and capture opportunities. create products and dissertation international humanities and social sciences, services that reflect market conditions and excite customers. Whether you are trying to become CEO of an existing company or founder of of illinois dissertation, a new company. Show confidence: You WILL achieve this goal with or without business school. Still, earning your INSEAD MBA accelerates your progress and maximises your potential. A good long term goal represents the next logical step after you achieve your short term goals. For instance, if you plan to spend a few years in management consulting, then it might make sense to move into a management role at a leading company in your coverage area.

Doing so would allow you to pleasantville essays, utilise the expert knowledge and university of illinois, skills, as well as the professional relationships, that you established during your consulting career. Optional Job Description Essay - employment gap(s) If you are currently not working or if you plan to statement be in, leave your current employer more than 2 months before the programme starts, please explain your activities and university of illinois dissertation, occupations between leaving your job and the start of the programme. short answer without a specified word limit) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Why are you between jobs right now? Did you leave your previous job voluntarily, or due to restructuring?

How are you using this time to prepare for INSEAD? How do your current activities prepare you to achieve your post-MBA goals? SECOND STAGE: STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Give a candid description of yourself, stressing the personal characteristics you feel to dissertation abstracts a the humanities sciences, be your strengths and weaknesses and the main factors, which have influenced your personal development, giving examples when necessary. Note: I recommend you start the recommendation letter process after confirming the strengths and weakness you plan to share with INSEAD Admissions Committee readers. Motivation Essay 1 - personal strengths and weaknesses. Give a candid description of yourself, stressing the personal characteristics you feel to be your strengths and university, weaknesses and at a 5th edition, the main factors, which have influenced your personal development, giving examples when necessary. (approximately 500 words) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION.

This is my favorite INSEAD essay because it allows you to demonstrate self-awareness and maturity Other schools have adopted this question, but it has been part of the INSEAD application for as long as I can remember Like Stanford#39;s What matters most to you, and university of illinois, why? question, INSEAD Essay One requires candidates analyse WHY they are they way they are For starters, I encourage you to read my (interview) tips for how to discuss your strengths and can a past tense, weaknesses My tips are written to prepare candidates for interviews, but the same methods work for essays, as well In addition, you might want to include some of the following details: Stories that describe life-changing events and how they’ve shaped your values and beliefs Stories that reflect recurring patterns in university of illinois dissertation your life/career and what those patterns mean A story that demonstrates the roots of your ethics and values Note: I recommend clients start the at a glance essays 5th edition, recommendation letter process after confirming the strengths and weakness that they plan to share with adcom readers. Dissertation? Situational leadership model. At A Essays 5th Edition? Please fill out this Strengths (+) and Weaknesses (-) chart. Here is dissertation a list of cute essay, 28 skills to get you started. Skills to forgive and forget. Persistence and Perseverance. Meeting management skills. Influence / persuasion skills. University? Skills in research paper dealing with difficult personalities.

Skills in dealing with difficult situations. Interpersonal relationship skills. Mentoring / coaching skills. Savvy in dissertation handling office politics. Professional Example - Option 1. Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and impact on you and abstracts and social, others) Why it is substantial to me / others. Why it is the MOST substantial personal accomplishment of my life. University Of Illinois? Pros of choosing this story (positive messages I could send to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Cons of the bluest essay, choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) What story do you want to of illinois, tell? Why do you want to tell it? Why is this accomplishment substantial?

Did you deliver results (making money or saving money for your company and/or your client)? Did you impact others (motivate colleagues, inspire juniors, influence seniors, set a new standard for your team, division, company and/or industry?) What do you want your readers to know about you? How does this example demonstrate your technical skills, your analytical skills and/or your interpersonal skills? How does this story demonstrate your ability to contribute to class discussions, project teams, and essays, alumni activities? Professional Example - Option 2. Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and impact on you and others) Why it is of illinois dissertation substantial to me / others. Why it is the MOST substantial personal accomplishment of my life. Pros of choosing this story (positive messages I could send to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Cons of choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to adcom readers who learn about the bluest essay, this accomplishment) Personal Example - Option 1. Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and impact on university of illinois dissertation you and others) Why it is substantial to me / others. Why it is the MOST substantial personal accomplishment of my life. Can A Be In? Pros of choosing this story (positive messages I could send to of illinois dissertation, adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Cons of choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Personal Example - Option 2. Accomplishment details (what you did, when you did it, how you did it, results and impact on you and others) Why it is cute substantial to me / others.

Why it is the MOST substantial personal accomplishment of my life. University Dissertation? Pros of choosing this story (positive messages I could send to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) Cons of choosing this story (negative messages I might be sending to adcom readers who learn about this accomplishment) What is at a glance essays 5th edition failure? Too often, clients send me failure essays that I do not believe or care about. Do not play it safe. If you have not failed, you have not tried hard enough. Share a real failure, not a success story that required persistence.

Failure usually involves damage. What was lost? Did you lose time, money, trust, reputation, or all of the above? In discussing what you learned, you might want to share an example of of illinois dissertation, how you have applied the hard-earned lessons that failure taught you. Thesis Statement Past Tense? Still, be sure to keep appropriate balance in your essay. If you get stuck, watch the university of illinois dissertation, original Rocky. (Spoiler alert!) Rocky loses the cute topics, fight, but we like him anyway.

His failure provides a perfect set up for dissertation his comeback in Rocky II. In this case, save the sequel for another essay. RULE #1: SHOW the of the paper, DAMAGE. University Of Illinois Dissertation? Did you lose money? Did you lose time?

Did you lose trust? Did you lose future business? ASK YOURSELF FIVE QUESTIONS. Can A Thesis Statement Tense? Why should anyone care? Was something damaged? (lost money, lost time, lost reputation, lost trust, lost business) 2. WAS I TO BLAME? Did the failure occur because of university of illinois, you / was it your fault? Some setbacks are not your fault.

Something happened that was beyond your control, but still affected you deeply. Think 2008 financial crisis, or 2011 Japan earthquake and dissertation abstracts international humanities and social, tsunami. But a true failure, as asked by INSEAD and university of illinois dissertation, other schools, should be your fault. You made a mistake, but you learned from paper it. 3. DID I LEARN SOMETHING? What did you learn about university of illinois, yourself?

What did you learn about other people? 4. The Bluest Eye Critical? HAVE I CHANGED? Did you change your attitude? Did you develop new skills? Did you deepen your understanding of of illinois dissertation, yourself. The Bluest Essay? Did you change your assumptions about your role in dissertation your organization?

Did you find new ways to eye critical, add value to your team? Can you prove that you learned your lesson? 5. CAN I PROVE IT? Can you show a brief example of university of illinois, a time you applied the lesson? Many good failure and at a glance 5th edition, setback stories involve personal transformation. Did you change your role (external change) and/or your attitude toward people or problems (internal change)?

Did you become more aware of university, your self-limiting tendencies or bad habits that hold you back from pleasantville essays achieving your full potential? Are you able to limit the negative impact of personal limitations that might otherwise lead to future mistakes or setbacks? To show personal transformation, try adding details that display a clear before and after BEFORE - how you were. AFTER - how you changed. IMPACT - how does this accomplishment prepare to contribute to MBA life and achieve your career goals? NOTE: THIS STEP IS OPTIONAL. You might not have space in the final essay to of illinois, mention a different example of a time when you applied your learning, but thinking and writing about it for now will help me understand and evaluate your story. Need a sample failure story? Please watch this.

SAMPLE BEHAVIORAL INTERVIEW ANSWER. Q: Tell me about essays, a time you managed a team that failed. University Dissertation? Information is can a past tense subject to change. University Of Illinois? Please verify all data with the pleasantville essays, schools. Of Illinois? Tell us about an experience where you were significantly impacted by cultural diversity, in paper a positive or negative way (approximately 300 words) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION. Describe all types of extra-professional activities in which you have been or are still involved for a significant amount of time (clubs, sports, music, arts, politics, etc). How are you enriched by dissertation, these activities? (approximately 300 words) QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION.

Information is subject to change. Can A Statement Past Tense? Please verify all data with the schools. Of Illinois Dissertation? Is there anything that you have not mentioned in the above essays. At A 5th Edition? that you would like the Admissions Committee to know? This essay is university of illinois dissertation optional. QUESTIONS BEHIND THE QUESTION.

I advise all of my clients to use this opportunity to share another side of abstracts international a the sciences, themselves. Here is of illinois a decent sample answer: Please tell the Admissions Committee whatever else you would like us to know. I would like the be in tense, Admissions Committee to of illinois dissertation, know how my international upbringing influenced my character. I attended a local elementary school when my family lived four years in Los Angeles. Pleasantville Essays? Coming back to Japan for middle and high school, I could integrate my easy-going California style to university dissertation, make changes within Japan’s traditional culture. Thesis Past? When I was at college, my cultural flexibility allowed me to create a volunteer community even though I was a newcomer. I started fishing in college after my father bought a house near a favorite local fishing spot. I gradually started making friends with other fishermen.

Listening to them tell old stories, I learned that the university dissertation, number of fish they catch is decreasing, partly from of the overfishing but mostly because of pollution and university, proposed that we form “Coastal Cleaning Crew” (CCC). To increase my impact, I convinced nearby fishing shops to support CCC. At A? Some contributed work gloves, trash bags and even fishing gear as prizes to attract volunteers. Shops put up CCC posters and I made a simple website to announce the next clean-up. We eventually gathered over 30 people. Local television programs and fishing magazines featured our actions.

Now, the fishing spot is cleaner, shops enjoy the publicity, and fisherman know each other better. Dissertation? This experience gave me confidence to build and lead effective communities everywhere. At X, I hope to lead Net Impact. You MUST write an optional essay if. Your GPA was significantly below 3.0. If your GPA does not show your academic potential, you might want to write something like this, “Here’s why my GPA was sub-par, and thesis statement be in, here’s what I’ve done to confirm my time management skills and academic competence. Dissertation? ” Do not make excuses or blame others. Hopefully, your GMAT and essays, work experience compensate for low grades. Also, remember that adcom members dig into your transcript to check if you took honors or advanced-level courses.

Ask your mentor or admissions consultant, but the following template might help you get started. Just remember, keep it brief. My 2.5 GPA at university of illinois, X University does not adequately reflect my academic potential. Eye Critical? During school, I had to university of illinois, balance my time. working multiple part-time jobs to support myself. leadership roles in extracurricular activities (students clubs, special events, conferences) health issues (had to take care of essay, yourself or a family member) personal tragedy (death of a friend or family member) Since then, I have improved my time management skills. proven my academic ability by [add concrete examples] Ideally, you took some advanced courses since graduation and earned high grades. University Dissertation? If not, can you show recent examples of how you have successfully managed multiple tasks? At INSEAD, I will be able to manage my time more effectively. You MUST NOT write an optional essay if. . you are repeating yourself. . you are telling the adcom something they do not want to hear.

Please resist the urge to include an essay you already wrote for the history of the research paper some other school. Dissertation? If adcom members wanted to read another story about your achievements, leadership or teamwork experiences, they would ask. Cute Essay? Moreover, if they did not ask you to share a mistake or failure story, why would you want to tell them? Should I use the of illinois, optional essay to write more reasons why I want to attend this MBA program? If you want to spend two years at their school, shouldn#39;t you use this opportunity to tell them so?

No, you should not. They asked that question. If your answer was not good enough, go back and make it better. Do not waste their time by writing more reasons here. The operative phrase in dissertation the following question is about you: Optional question: Is there anything else you think the university of illinois, Admissions Committee should know about you to evaluate your candidacy? Bottom line: Show them that you can follow instructions. Glance Essays? Make this essay about university dissertation, you, or write nothing at can a statement be in past tense, all. Please read my latest interview tips here The INSEAD Interview. Information is subject to change. Please verify all data with the schools.

Information is subject to dissertation, change. Paper? Please verify all data with the schools.

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Kerja Amal Moral Folio Tingkatan 4 Essays and Research Papers. KERJA KURSUS PENDIDIKAN MORAL OBJEKTIF PENILAIAN KERJA KURSUS Objektif Penilaian Kerja Kursus . University Of Illinois. Pendidikan Moral adalah untuk menilai kebolehan calon: 1. At A Glance Essays. mengetahui, memahami dan menghayati nilai-nilai untuk berakhlak mulia 2. menggunakan pemikiran yang matang berasaskan nilai moral 3. berkomunikasi berasaskan nilai moral 4 . membuat keputusan dengan berasaskan nilai moral 5. menyelesaikan masalah berasaskan nilai moral 6. menghayati keharmonian antara manusia. 658 Words | 5 Pages. Vacancies/JAWATAN KOSONG Telemarketing Consultants for calling Bank Campaigns/Insurance amp; Telecommunications. FAEDAH UTAMA - Gaji Basic Rm1500- . University Of Illinois. Rm3500 (diberi berdasarkan pengalaman) - Komisyen Incentive - Rm3000 keatas sebulan - Waktu kerja Isnin %u2013 Jumaat (9.30am %u2013 6.30pm) - Sabtu berselang 2kali dalam sebulan (10am %u2013 4pm) - Cuti Umum / Public Holiday ikut Calender - KWSP/Socso/Medical Benefit/Overtime - Elaun Kedatangan Rm200 - Insentive tambahan Rm150 untuk Elaun. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Kuala Lumpur 759 Words | 6 Pages. MPW2153 PENDIDIKAN MORAL BAB 4 : STRATEGI PENYELESAIAN MASALAH BAB 4 KONFLIK MORAL DAN . PENYELESAIAN Oleh : Nor Azlili, Nadhirah, Muthualagan, Syuja MAKSUD KONFLIK atau PERTIKAIAN Ialah sesuatu permasalahan yang timbul akibat daripada pertembungan dua perkara atau lebih. Ini berbeza dengan masalah kerana konflik akan melibatkan jalan penyelesaian yang harus memilih di antara satu yang terbaik. Konflik boleh muncul dalam pelbagai bentuk seperti konflik yang melibatkan soal kehendak atau matlamat.

1520 Words | 6 Pages. MORALS Morals http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-hume-morality/ Growing up I always was told to tell the the history paper truth, treat . everyone how you would want to be treated and university of illinois not to the history research lie, cheat, or steal because these are morals I should live by. The definition of morals is a principle or habit with respect to dissertation right or wrong conduct. What is the bluest eye critical essay, right and wrong, and who decides these rights and wrongs? I will go back and explore Kant and Locke to of illinois dissertation hopefully answer my questions. • The values people. Aesthetics , Deontological ethics , Ethics 2759 Words | 7 Pages. PENGARUH FAKTOR - FAKTOR MOTIVATION TERHADAP PRESTASI KERJA KARYAWAN PADA PERUSAHAAN WAJIK KLETIK DIBUNGKUS KLOBOT BLITAR Oleh: . Kusumawati, Arie Email: library@lib.unair.ac.id; library@unair.ac.id Undergraduate Theses Airlangga University Dibuat: 2006-02-06 ABSTRAKSI Manusia sebagai salah satu sumber daya dalam perusahaan mempunyai peranan sangat penting dibandingkan dengan sumber daya lainnya, karena manusia merupakan faktor penggerak dari seluruh kegiatan perusahaan. Cute Essay. Perusahaan. 1083 Words | 4 Pages.

Assignment 2 Examine the moral values in Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and of illinois dissertation Confucianism which has formed the basis for human behavior. . Give specific examples. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Moral values serve as standards of right and statement be in tense wrong for of illinois dissertation people, guiding their decisions and actions. Glance 5th Edition. Moral values also determine what people value and how they express this in their lives. People learn moral values from religions, governments, and. Christianity , Good and evil , Human 1383 Words | 5 Pages. | Penghargaan | (iii) | 3. | Objektif Kajian | (iv) | 4 . | Kaedah Kajian | (v) | 5. | Hasil Kajiana)Salasilah keluargab) Perkembangan . University Of Illinois. diri dan keluargac) Tokoh dalam keluargad) Peristiwa bersejarah dalam keluarga | | 6. | Rumusan | | 7. | Lampiran | | Isi Kandungan Penghargaan Pertama sekali, saya ingin mengucapkan terima kasih kepada keluarga saya yang telah banyak memberikan sokongan dan sumber untuk menyiapkan folio ini dengan jayanya. Saya juga ingin merakamkan ribuan terima. 624 Words | 5 Pages.

Law may be invoked to prevent immoral behavior or enforce morals . Pleasantville Essays. h. An appeal to the harm principle already provides a widely accepted . independent justification i. University Of Illinois Dissertation. As a result, this principle usually invoked only when there are so-called victimless crimes j. Mill rejects use of this principle as a basis for limiting liberty. In his view, accepting this principle would be allowing the the history of the paper tyranny of the majority. 4 ) The offense principle – Individual liberty is justifiably. Censorship , Erotica , Freedom of speech 1347 Words | 5 Pages. The first chapter of “Elements of university, Moral Philosophy” By James Rachels begins by attempting to at a glance 5th edition define morality. Dissertation. This is difficult task since so . many possible and statement past tense rival definitions exits, therefore the university of illinois dissertation common ground can be defined as only the “minimum conception” and although it is not immediately defined, the can a statement be in reader of of illinois, “ Elements of Moral Philosophy” is given examples involving handicapped children to at a glance illustrate. The first example employed in “Elements of Moral Philosophy” by James Rachels discussed. Ethics , Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Morality 2529 Words | 7 Pages. ?First Name__________________ Last Name__________________ Unit 4 : 4.03 Design Time: Your Space 1 (20 points) Take a look around you and . your workspace at of illinois, this moment. What elements are helping you stay on be in past, task and complete your work? What can you change to make your workspace most effective?

Part 1: 1. Rate every area in university dissertation your workspace on a scale of 1- 4 using the following chart. 2. For anything ranks fair or poor, type in the “Actions to Take” column any changes you can make to improve your. Better , Camera , Camera phone 567 Words | 2 Pages. unsur terpenting dalam perusahaan, karena manusia ( tenaga kerja ) inilah yang menggerakkan dan mengendalikan segala sumber daya yang ada . didalam perusahaan. Maksud dan tujuan dari perusahan dapat terwujud apabila pimpinan yang memimpin perusahaan tersebut dapat memberikan perhatian yang serius kepada karyawan sebagai suatu asset perusahaan dan sumber daya lainnya, serta pimpinan perusahaan tersebut dapat membangkitkan semangat kerja para karyawannya dengan memberikan motivasi yang tepat dan. 9041 Words | 36 Pages. 0017 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2013 THE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE SURVEY (HES) NAME : KUA YU CHAN I/C NO. : EXAM REGISTRATION NO: JA017K016 . 5th Edition. GROUP MEMBERS: 1) KUA YU CHAN 2) DHARSHINI A/P NEELA MEHAN 3) LIM HUI LING 4 ) SHEE HUI CHIEN 5) REGINA LEONG ZHI LING OBJECTIVES We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5.This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of university of illinois dissertation, Education has prepared.

Arithmetic mean , Chart , Household income in the bluest eye critical the United States 859 Words | 8 Pages. Moral Leadership 1 Moral Leadership Tracey Marshall Canada Christian College Advanced Dynamics in Leadership Dr. Clarence . Duff April 12, 2012 Moral Leadership 2 The distinction between right and wrong concerning principles is called morality. It is morality which helps to govern people whether as an individual, in a family, community, or organization. Within the last century, morality has been closely linked to leadership by identifying a style called “ Moral Leadership”. In fact, it. Decision making , Ethics , Leadership 1914 Words | 7 Pages. ETHICS: THEORY AND APPLICATION MIDTERM EXAM SECTION POINTS: SECTION #1: EACH CORRECT ANSWER IS WORTH TWO (2) POINTS. (2X5=10) SECTION #2: EACH CORRECT . ANSWER IS WORTH FOUR ( 4 ) POINTS. (4X5=20) SECTION #3: EACH ANSWER IS WORTH 35 POINTS (2X35=70) OVERALL POINTS= 10+20+70=100 Section :1: True/False questions. Directions: please indicate if each statement is TRUE or FALSE.

Each answer is worth two (2) points. 1. Ethical relativists claim that cultures ultimately share the same basic. Aesthetics , Cultural relativism , Ethics 1757 Words | 5 Pages. sebelah. Kesimpulannya, setiap individu harus menghormati hak wanita dan memberikan layanan secara adil kepada mereka. Dengan ini, wanita akan berpeluang . untuk memberi sumbangan kepada masyarakat serta Negara. Dissertation. (287) patah perkataan Tugasan Harian 4 Kepentingan amalan nilai amanah bagi setiap kakitangan kerajaan untuk menangani masalah rasuah Fenomena rasuah sering dikaitkan dengan istilah tumbuk rusuk atau makan suap dan konotasi ini membawa maksud yang negatif kepada imej sesebuah masyarakat. 2379 Words | 9 Pages.

Development of Moral Reasoning, Attitudes Beliefs ( Kohlberg, Turiel, Gilligan) Lawrence Kohlberg • He established the Moral . Judgement Interview in the history of the paper his original 1958 dissertation, the interviewer uses moral dilemmas to determine which stage of moral reasoning a person uses. • The dilemmas are fictional short stories that describe situations in which a person has to make a moral decision. • Kohlberg experimented on this theory by interviewing boys aged 10 to 16. They were presented moral dilemmas. Developmental psychology , Ethics , Jean Piaget 731 Words | 3 Pages. SHOULD WE BE MORAL . University. Being moral is a choice free from of the paper, both internal and external factors. University Of Illinois Dissertation. Unless we have some convincing . reasons for being moral , there is no point in pleasantville enquiring what is dissertation, morally good and what is not. This question concerns reasons than causes.

Also one must realize that being moral involves self denial. For example a moral person must not take BRIBE, but another person who is dissertation abstracts a the humanities and social sciences, not moral and takes bribes may turn out to be in university of illinois a financially better position. So, moral obligations. Human , Logic , Moral 804 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form * * Search Bottom of can a statement be in past, Form 1 - 20 of 1000 * Moral Decline In America . continue to decay. Television shows aired on T.V. also present their own proof of this moral decline. A popular MTV show, Teen Mom, can be seen as glorifying teen. Premium * Moral Decline ask ourselves why and then understand we need to dissertation stop. Pleasantville. Other people may think that moral decline is stimulated by of illinois dissertation immoral leaders.

This is partially true. Leaders. Premium Saved . Adolescence , Aesthetics , Developmental psychology 831 Words | 6 Pages. 1. What is Moral Theology? Moral theology/Christian ethics is that branch of theological inquiry that studies in thesis past tense a systematic . way the university of illinois practical implications of God's revelatory intervention in Jesus Christ. It is essays 5th edition, concerned with the kind of people we ought to be and the kinds of actions we ought to perform or avoid. In pursuing its task, moral theology must draw upon every available source of understanding: scripture, tradition, relevant human sciences (such as psychology, sociology, economics). Bible , Christian theology , Christianity 818 Words | 3 Pages. Why Teach Moral Values When most people talk about a school curriculum, they think about math, science, social studies, and language . University Of Illinois Dissertation. courses. Seldom do I hear or read about moral values as being part of the abstracts international a the curriculum.

The problem is that the neglect of teaching moral values in university of illinois dissertation schools is hurting our students and the bluest causing problems in university of illinois dissertation society. If a person has never learned any moral values, how is she or he able to research paper discern the difference between right and of illinois dissertation wrong? That is basically the essence of. Education , Intrinsic value , Morality 859 Words | 4 Pages. Kohlberg’s Moral Development Psych/500 October 14, 2012 Is it morally acceptable to steal food from the wealthy to feed the poor? This . was the type of question Lawrence Kohlberg, an American-born Harvard Professor, would ask of his research subjects. At A. Dr. Kohlberg was fascinated by university of illinois dissertation the cognitive development work proposed by Swiss theorist Jean Piaget (Long, n.d.). “Kohlberg’s work aids both our understanding of the ways in which individuals make moral decisions, and demands that we use a.

Carol Gilligan , Developmental psychology , Ethics 1562 Words | 5 Pages. Moral Realism In this paper, I examine the connection between judgments of fact and moral judgments in an attempt to discern . whether moral judgments are simply a subset of judgments of fact. I will look mostly at an argument posed by many moral realists that takes moral facts to be “supervenient natural facts which are independent of our theorizing about them”1 and in which moral judgments are determined by objective facts which relate to human flourishing or pleasure and pain. I will also, though. Argument , Human , Judgment 2443 Words | 7 Pages. Analisis Pengaruh Komitmen Organisasi Dan Keterlibatan Kerja Terhadap Hubungan Antara Etika Kerja Islam Dg Sikap Perubahan Organisasi. ANALISIS PENGARUH KOMITMEN ORGANISASI DAN KETERLIBATAN KERJA TERHADAP HUBUNGAN ANTARA ETIKA KERJA ISLAM DENGAN SIKAP PERUBAHAN . ORGANISASI Sri Anik1 Arifuddin2 Abstract This study examines the effect of cute topics, Organizational Commitment and of illinois Job Involvement on the relationship between The Islamic Work Ethics and Organizational Change Attitude. The result of the study supports the hypothese that the Islamic Work Ethic relates to of the the Organizational Commitment and dissertation the Islamic Work Ethic related to the Organizational. 7066 Words | 27 Pages. Moral Development | Morality as Rooted in Human NatureDescribe and the history research evaluate the biological perspective on morality. * The biological . perspective on moral development assumes that morality is grounded in university the genetic heritage of our species, perhaps through prewired emotional reactions. Humans share many morally relevant behaviours with other species, and the ventromedial area of the frontal region of the a the humanities sciences cerebral cortex is vital for emotional responsiveness to others’ suffering.

Nevertheless. Aggression , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1867 Words | 6 Pages. Moral development is one of the oldest topics of interest for those who are curious about human nature. Today, most people have strong opinions . about acceptable and unacceptable behavior, ethical and unethical behavior, and university of illinois dissertation ways in which acceptable and glance ethical behaviors are fostered in youth. Teachers as well as parents have become widely concerned about their children's values, in university turn moral education is something that is being pushed into a lot of at a essays, school curriculums. Moral development concerns. Developmental psychology , Ethics , Jean Piaget 2434 Words | 6 Pages. Sociology 1A. Moral Panics According to Cohen, society is often subject to such instances and university of illinois periods of moral panic; an at a essays 5th edition, . occurrence which is characterised by ‘stylized and stereotypical’ representation by the mass media, and a tendency for those ‘in power’ (politicians, bishops, editors and of illinois dissertation so on) to can a statement be in past tense man the ‘ moral barricades’ and pronounce judgement. University Dissertation. At times the object and nature of the panic may be considered ‘novel’, such as that concerning the ‘child killers’ of essay topics, James Bulger in the.

1990s , 1994 , Cameron Mitchell 2643 Words | 7 Pages. bumper sticker read, “The Moral Majority is Neither.” The fact that there was a bumper sticker criticizing the Moral Majority, . measures how large of an dissertation, impact they once had in politics in at a essays 5th edition America. University Of Illinois Dissertation. Led by Reverend Jerry Falwall, the dissertation international a the humanities Moral Majority was an ultra-conservative group that aimed to incorporate politics with strong conservative religious views. The mission itself was controversial which made their political agenda criticized even more. Falwell and the rest of the Moral Majority believed that.

Christian right , Conservatism , Evangelicalism 1766 Words | 5 Pages. Why Be Moral Bobby Tucker Grand Canyon University: PHI-305 October 5, 2014 Why Be Moral Plato’s idea of justice is along the university . thought of morality, or righteousness while Thrasymachus thoughts were that justice meant superiority. Pleasantville. This essay will discuss the two views of justice as well as give purpose to the question of “why be moral ?” Before answering the question, one must compare the two views of the scholars to get both sides. Dissertation. There could be several reasons for living by a moral code, this. Bible , God , Jesus 1109 Words | 5 Pages. the destruction that follows when ambition goes beyond moral constraints. Glance Essays 5th Edition. To fully understand the extent to which Macbeth is a morality play, . it is essential to dissertation give consideration to dissertation international and social sciences the context of the university time during which the playwright penned the cute drama. Theatre was a major social event that not only brought society together but also taught the audience, regardless of their social class, how to university of illinois behave in order for society to can a thesis statement be in tense maintain its moral order.

Shakespeare used the beliefs and current events. Duncan I of Scotland , Ethics , James I of England 2443 Words | 7 Pages. Moral Law is university dissertation, a rule or a group of rules of right living conceived as universal and cute topics unchanging. Moral law is a system of . guidelines for behavior. These guidelines may or may not be part of a religion, codified in university of illinois dissertation written form, or legally enforceable. For some people moral law is synonymous with the commands of a divine being. Essay. For others, moral law is a set of universal rules that should apply to of illinois dissertation everyone.(SR, page 87) It is understood to combine the pinnacle of “Natural Law” and “Deontological reasoning”. Aristotle , Ethics , Jeremy Bentham 1315 Words | 4 Pages. ? Describe and evaluate two theories of moral development. This essay will demonstrate the past explanation and the evaluation of two . different theories of moral development. Moral development is related to behavior, and psychologists mean by moral behavior is that the judgment of person.

Jean Piaget is the most renowned psychologist for his work on moral development. However, his theory was limited and not developed as Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory, but Piaget made a favour for Kohlberg by provided. Child development , Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget 1362 Words | 4 Pages. Nomsenge Topic: Deviance Due: 4 October 2012 TASK: Critically discuss the idea of moral panic in the social . construction of deviance. INTRODUCTION In order to discuss the idea of moral panic in the social construction of deviance it is important that these three concepts be first defined. Only then is university of illinois dissertation, it possible to initiate or conduct an research, interrogation of the links and connections between the dissertation two main inseparable constructs, which are moral panic, and deviance. In brief deviance.

Sociology 1673 Words | 5 Pages. launched by Tom Monaghan, founder of Domino's Pizza Inc, in cute September 1997. University Of Illinois Dissertation. As at February 2013, there are 103 stores operating all over can a thesis statement be in past, Malaysia, with . 61 in of illinois the Klang Valley, 12 stores in international and social sciences Johor, 8 in Perak, 8 in Pulau Pinang, 6 in Negeri Sembilan, 4 in Kedah, 3 in Melaka and university 1 in Perlis. With the dissertation abstracts international a the humanities healthy growth in Malaysia, Domino's extended its presence to neighboring Singapore in 2009. Dissertation. There are currently 13 outlets operating in the bluest essay Singapore and growing aggressively Corporate Social Responsibility . Corporate social responsibility , Domino's Pizza , Education 717 Words | 3 Pages.

of employees, this makes him help a lot of university, people get employed. He earn the money so he bought a house in the bluest essay Canada and the house is university dissertation, belong to himself, his . parent live in his house. |Capitalism | Moral | |Free market |Right to choice | |Self-interest is more important for individuals . Anxiety , Capitalism , Economic system 798 Words | 4 Pages. Moral Leadership and Ethics (Sacha Fuller) If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more, and humanities and social sciences become more, you are a . leader. Of Illinois. – John Quincy Adams A promotion to essays 5th edition management or obtaining a leadership role in an organization is not the only thing needed to be considered a leader. A sound foundation in morals , values, and ethics are needed to be an efficient and effective leader. A leader must stand out from the rest. As a leader, one must know what they value in of illinois dissertation their subordinates. Business ethics , Ethics , Leadership 1281 Words | 4 Pages. KERTAS KERJA KARNIVAL NASYID SAMBUTAN 20 TAHUN AL FURQAN TARIKH: AHAD (18 NOVEMBER 2007) TEMPAT: SEKOLAH RENDAH AL FURQAN 33000 . KUALA KANGSAR MASA: Ahad 8.00 pagi - 12.15 tghr ANJURAN: SEKOLAH RENDAH AL FURQAN dengan kerjasama PIBG SRAF ALUMNI SRAF 1. MUQADDIMAH Kesenian seumpama nasyid telah wujud sejak zaman Rasulullah s.a.w dan sebelumnya.

Pada awal perkembangannya di Malaysia, ia lebih dikenali melalui irama padang pasir. Muzik nasyid telah menerima kepelbagaian. 463 Words | 4 Pages. uniqueness of a virtuous person comes from the bluest essay, their arete, phronesis, and of illinois eudaimonia. Dissertation International Sciences. Arete means virtue or excellence and can be exemplified as a person of dissertation, . generosity, courage, honesty, duty, loyalty, compassion, and other virtues. Phronesis, is described as moral or practical wisdom that knows the correct path to of the research paper take in of illinois any circumstance. Eudaimonia is happiness or flourishing life.2 These characteristics are often mistaken, for what brings happiness to people, virtues, and wisdom are different for international a the humanities and social sciences each person. Aristotle , Deontological ethics , Ethics 1595 Words | 5 Pages. ? Moral action - Doing something that is right in spite of opposition from others Adam Hochschild’s King of Leopold’s Ghost is the story of of illinois, . Essays. no other than European ruler King Leopold II of Belgium, and the Congo, in which he took ownership of. He later became in control of one of the largest colonies in Africa due to his manipulating ways and university dissertation tricks.

Moreover his Congo, mostly the cute essay topics white authorities, forced some villages in Africa into harsh labor, where they were punished for wrong behavior, and. Adam Hochschild , Congo Free State , Human rights 1311 Words | 4 Pages. airports, bus and university of illinois transport terminals and railway stations to sighted far from eye critical essay, where living places and dissertation community law enforcers should check the misuse of . loudspeakers, worshipers, outdoor parties and discos, as well as public announcements systems. 4 . THERMAL POLLUTION – The release of at a glance, harmful heat in of illinois dissertation the environment(atmosphere or water). * SOURCE: there are many other sources that contribute to thermal pollution such as power plants creating electricity. Acid rain , Air pollution , Cooling tower 661 Words | 3 Pages.

? MORAL VIRTUES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Man attains his ultimate end through good actions, that is, in conformity with law and his conscience. These . 5th Edition. good actions can be helped by good habits called virtues. Virtue is not something abstract possibly no term in the history of university dissertation, moral thought has stimulated more interest, reflection and speculation than that of virtue. Virtue is not something abstract and detached from life but on the contrary it has deep roots in at a essays life itself. It spring up from the latter. God , Good and evil , Jesus 2386 Words | 7 Pages. Is moral universalism the truth? According to Streiffer [1], moral universalism is an ethical position that there are some . moral values which are agreed by all people, ignoring nationality, culture, religion or other differentiating features. University Dissertation. Some famous philosophers, from the ancient Platonists and Stoics, to humanities modern Kantian, Objectivist, believed in moral universalism. Besides, a majority of religions have morally universalist positions. However, at the same time, there are also some famous philosophers.

Culture , Human rights , Marriage 776 Words | 3 Pages. considered synonyms, morals are beliefs based on university, practices or teachings regarding how people conduct themselves in personal relationships and the bluest eye critical . in university of illinois dissertation society, while ethics refers to a set or system of principles, or a philosophy or theory behind them. (Principles, however, is itself is a synonym for pleasantville essays morals .) So, ethics is the rules of university dissertation, conduct recognized in thesis statement past respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc: it defines how thing are according to the rules; while morals are principles. Aristotle , Ethics , Eudaimonia 1914 Words | 3 Pages. Table 5: Moral Development 0-3 months no moral awareness 3-6 months Show joy by smiling, cooing and laughing when fed . comfortable or safe. 6-9 months Show joy by smiling, cooing and university of illinois laughing when fed comfortable or safe crying when distressed or unhappy. 9-12 months- No understanding of right or wrong, starts to understand word no. 1-2 Years MORAL DEVELOPMENT: One to Two Years Is inwardly sensitive to adult approval and disapproval, despite tantrums and bursts of a the and social, anger. University Of Illinois. 2- 4 Years. Blame , Conscience , Consciousness 526 Words | 3 Pages. MORALS AND ETHICS PREVAILING STANDARDS AND MEASURES TO IMPROVE THESE INTRODUCTION 1. The traditional military ethic of at a essays, our . army can be described on the concept of university, ‘Namak’ or salt.

One is be in past tense, supposed to university of illinois dissertation be faithful to topics the person whose salt one has eaten. University Of Illinois. The allegiance is not necessarily to the state but to what the soldier serves directly – the regiment or may be his direct superior officer. Essays. 2. During the tenure of the British Raj, the ruling power had assigned a unique position. Aesthetics , Armed forces , Army 1100 Words | 4 Pages. Moral Philosophy “Principles or rules that people use to university of illinois decide what is right or wrong” 1.TELEOLOGY:- * An act is considered morally . right or acceptable if it produces some desired result, i.e., pleasure, knowledge, career growth, a self-interest, or utility. * Theory that derives duty from what is valuable as an cute essay, end, in a manner diametrically opposed to university deontological ethics. Teleological ethics holds that the basic standard of duty is the contribution that an action makes to the realization. Descriptive ethics , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 1295 Words | 4 Pages. Philosophical ethics are an attempt to essays 5th edition define moral action. Theories try to answer questions such as ‘what is a moral action?’ . and ‘how should men act?’ In the case of classical theories the main question is of illinois dissertation, ‘What is the good life? We all grow up learning our ethics, or morals , from our parents and society.

As we grow we are told things; do not cross the road alone, clean your room. But there are a set of eye critical, instructions that we are told, and we grow to learn that they have quite a different motive. Categorical imperative , Deontological ethics , Ethics 2874 Words | 7 Pages. Moral Development 2 and a half years old - they have no understanding of what’s wrong and right but are starting to university of illinois understand the pleasantville word no. . 3 years old - no understanding of what’s wrong and dissertation right but can follow simple rules most of the dissertation a the humanities and social sciences time. 4 years old- some children are sometimes thoughtful towards other but do things mainly for adult approval. 5-6 years old- children this age are eager to understand and follow the rules. University Dissertation. 7-9 years old- children at this age are willing to tell others. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 777 Words | 3 Pages. Moral Rights 1. Right to Live: The first and main right of man is his right to live.

The object of a moral life is topics, improvement . of the self and life is a necessary condition to effecting this improvement. The right to university dissertation life is a fundamental right it is a sacred right. The right to life also included the right to can a statement be in work without money earning the necessities of of illinois dissertation, life cannot be obtained. The Bluest. The life of of illinois dissertation, a person without occupation becomes difficult. Statement Past. To the university of illinois right of life is conjoined the duty of respect. Human , Human rights , Meaning of life 1142 Words | 3 Pages.

Support of Moral Relativism: My topic is on moral relativism, and I am trying to argue that moral relativism is abstracts international a the sciences, . applicable and university of illinois dissertation is required to explain the current phenomenon. First I would try to show how culture affects moral decisions, and that such shows the thesis statement be in past tense need for a relativistic explanation. I would propose a few arguments and analogies for the need of relativism, such as that in different situations the same moral rule may not apply. I would then try to see if there are any moral standards. Cultural relativism , Culture , Ethics 1874 Words | 5 Pages.

Notes on Moral Turpitude Problem : Moral Turpitude Black’s Law Dictionary definition of university, moral turpitude as . “an act of essays, baseness, vileness, or depravity in the private duties which a man owes his fellow men, or to university society in general, contrary to the accepted and customary rule of right and duty between man and man, or conduct contrary to justice, honesty, modesty, or good morals . “Act or behavior that gravely violates moral sentiment or accepted moral standards of community and is. Conviction , Crime , Ethics 1408 Words | 6 Pages. Role of School in Moral Education. Role of School in Moral Education Principal Dr Smt U K Sadavarte Vivekwardhini College of Education For Women, Nanded Prof Rachana . Sandeep Akolkar AAD College of Education, Khultabad, Aurangabad Moral education is what the schools do to glance 5th edition help the young become ethically mature adults, capable of moral thought and action. Very little of the moral education that inevitably occurs in the schools is formally recorded in lesson plans, curriculum guides, or. Developmental psychology , Education , Heinz dilemma 996 Words | 4 Pages. ?1. What is a moral dilemma? A genuine dilemma is of illinois, one type of moral problem, captured by the expression “You’re damned if you . do, damned if you don’t.” That is, in a dilemma, there appears to of the paper be no right answer or solution (Dreisbach, 2008). Moral dilemmas, at of illinois, the very least, involve conflicts between moral requirements (McConnell, 2010). 3. The four questions that must be asked to establish if a Dirty Harry Problem exists are: Did the agent know the situation and the choices that it offers.

Clint Eastwood , Dirty Harry , Ethics 2400 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction It is widely accepted that educating and training students in essay moral competence is not just useful but obligatory in university classroom . practice. The fact that numerous moral topics and situations are constantly encountered in can a thesis statement past life gives rise to university of illinois an essential need for educators to the history of the facilitate opportunities for moral learning and development. (Ludecke-Plumer, 2007) This can be accomplished by educating students on the different facets of life including ideals of justice and social expectation. (Henry. Developmental psychology , Education , Educational psychology 1343 Words | 5 Pages. Morality Lost and Moral Education. Lost and Moral Education Xiangwen Liao (Allen) University of university dissertation, La Verne - ELS Abstract Morality is the part of positive . moral values that are the necessary for human’s social activities and pleasantville daily life. It’s one of the special and unique elements that make human different from university dissertation, animals. However, in the age of can a be in tense, modernization, we are facing problems of morality lost in many areas in our life when we are chasing the material goals. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the university current moral problems. Education , History of education , Intrinsic value 1768 Words | 5 Pages.

Kohlberg's Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg was born in essays Bronxville, New York on October 25, 1927. Dissertation. He was born into a wealthy family and . Topics. enjoyed all of the luxuries that the university rich lifestyle had to dissertation abstracts a the humanities and social offer including the of illinois finest college prep schools. However, Kohlberg was not too concerned with this lifestyle. Instead he became a sailor with the merchant marines. During World War II, Kohlberg played an pleasantville essays, instrumental role in smuggling Jews through a British blockade in Palestine. Dissertation. It was during. Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget , Kohlberg's stages of can a statement be in tense, moral development 1479 Words | 4 Pages. EDU10002 Assessment 3 Folio TP1 2015 4.

Teaching Period 1, 2015 EDU10002 Understanding Language and Literacy Assessment 3: Folio Word limit: 1500 (+/- 10%) Weighting: 30% Due date: . 9am (AEST) Monday 1 June 2015 (Week 12) Assessment overview This assessment folio requires you to create a newsletter for the parents in dissertation an early childhood or primary setting and write a reflection on your process. You will demonstrate your understanding of literacy and language in relation to of the research paper one of the university teaching and learning curriculum models/ approaches introduced. Childhood , Early childhood education , Education 878 Words | 4 Pages. karena itu adalah sebuah bentuk eksploitasi berlebihan atas seksualitas melalui majalah, buku, film, internet, dll., yang tersebar 1 Jawa Pos edisi 8 . The History Research. April 2006 ibid 2 2 secara luas dan dengan mudah diakses masyarakat. Itu semua merusak moral bangsa dan melecehkan wanita.”3 Selain itu, isi majalah itu juga sangat bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam, yang notabene dipeluk oleh sekitar 90% penduduk Indonesia. Imam S. Of Illinois. Nugroho, Ketua Aliansi Jurnalis Independen (AJI) Surabaya, menyatakan “penerbitan. 4844 Words | 16 Pages. Ethical and can a thesis statement past tense Moral Issues in Business. Ethical and Moral Issues in Business MGT 216 April 4 , 2012 Ethical and Moral Issues in Business Ethics and . moral are not things that commonly cross a person’s mind, unless there is an ethical or moral issue. In ethical and moral issues, people begin to question the of illinois ethics and morals or the dissertation abstracts a the and social sciences person or people in of illinois dissertation the middle of the questioning.

This paper will define the differences between ethical and moral issues, the dissertation abstracts humanities sciences differences between personal and business ethics, and will provide examples. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Ethics 856 Words | 3 Pages. Discuss Theories Of Moral Development. ?Discuss theories of moral development Piaget researched into the moral development of of illinois dissertation, children and found that until about 5 . years old children are amoral. They cannot make moral judgements or understand rules. However, most children under 5 years old know when they are doing something wrong; therefore it could be argued that they aren’t amoral. To understand rules children use equal-status contact with peers to at a essays 5th edition understand others perspectives and begin to develop morally. Piaget used pairs of vignettes. Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget , Kohlberg's stages of moral development 1186 Words | 3 Pages.

Lawrence Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development. Lawrence Kohlberg conducted research on the moral development of children. University Of Illinois. He wanted to understand how they develop a sense of of the research paper, right or wrong . and how justice is served. Of Illinois Dissertation. Kohlberg used surveys in which he included moral dilemmas where he asked the subjects to evaluate a moral conflict. Through his studies, Kohlberg observed that moral growth and statement be in past development precedes through stages such as those of of illinois, Piaget's stages of cognitive development. He theorized that moral growth begins at dissertation abstracts international humanities, the beginning of life.

Developmental psychology , Human rights , Jean Piaget 2215 Words | 6 Pages.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of university of illinois dissertation romantic attraction to fade?

What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)?

Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and can a statement past others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to university of illinois, be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents?

Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in the bluest essay sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks?

Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read?

Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?

Why do adolescents need to dissertation, establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to thesis statement be in tense, be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for university of illinois dissertation, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop?

Why do cats show pleasure by the bluest, purring and kneading? Why do cats like to university, sleep in boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind?

What causes insects like crickets and paper cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of university of illinois dissertation humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in dissertation abstracts international humanities and social sciences colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic?

Why are insects attracted to university of illinois, light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to abstracts international a the and social, human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in university of illinois the Middle East which resulted in a the humanities the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war?

What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to university, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of abstracts humanities sciences 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the dissertation world? Or why is cute essay topics, it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and dissertation more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about at a glance essays 5th edition, this worldwide or apply this question to university dissertation, one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics?

Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in at a essays the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the university of illinois dissertation Arab Spring movement not lead to cute essay topics, successful democratic societies?

Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the university of illinois development of American slavery system? What caused the at a glance 5th edition settlement of university Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of can a thesis statement be in tense Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is of illinois, English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the the history great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the university of illinois dissertation black plague of the thesis statement be in past Middle Ages to dissertation, stop?

What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the cute topics European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to university of illinois dissertation, the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at thesis, 10%, and African American was third at of illinois, 8%)? Why did Japan attack the of the research paper U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the university of illinois war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into the bluest eye critical, a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to of illinois, get some ideas of possible answers.

Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for paper, the title. Your answer to of illinois, the question will be the essays thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and university dissertation describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of international sciences your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. University Dissertation. To make your thesis into the bluest eye critical essay, a clear roadmap of university dissertation what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in international a the humanities sciences the body of your essay. Dissertation. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format.

Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and essays talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to university, either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. The Bluest Eye Critical. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by university dissertation, Virginia Kearney 3. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109.

Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by essay, Virginia Kearney 129. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. University Of Illinois. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Eye Critical Essay. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh.

Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. Of Illinois Dissertation. A few exciting ideas about the body like the thesis be in introductory and concluding ideas. Of Illinois Dissertation. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Essay. Hoping to have some more great things from you!

Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Of Illinois. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. Dissertation Abstracts International Humanities Sciences. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.

Another great post for teachers and dissertation students! I always learn to dissertation humanities, much from your sharing. University Of Illinois. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from abstracts international humanities sciences United States. Of Illinois Dissertation. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the at a glance 5th edition beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves.

I know how hard it can be to university dissertation, come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in the history research teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and university of illinois dissertation respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Abstracts International A The. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of of illinois dissertation HubPages, Inc.

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conceit essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is university of illinois, under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the eye critical essay faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Of Illinois! More generally, the natural rhythm of thesis past tense language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is university of illinois dissertation, a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of can a thesis statement be in parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of of illinois dissertation poetry--an important part of dissertation international a the and social sciences poetic rhythm . University Dissertation! The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in can a statement past tense this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. University Of Illinois! Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for essay the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from of illinois dissertation, ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at the history research, one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to of illinois overlap one another to essays form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to university whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in research the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to dissertation apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the history paper the classroom and published textbooks. University Of Illinois! In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Glance 5th Edition! Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is university dissertation, a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the cute existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the university dissertation Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to abstracts international humanities a chapter in university dissertation a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Thesis Statement Be In! fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Of Illinois! (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the dissertation a the humanities and social praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the university of illinois end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Pleasantville! An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of university dissertation prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the thesis be in old values of the university Roman Empire before the essay coming of Christianity. University Dissertation! In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the the history of the research paper four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy.

In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to university of illinois dissertation dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. The History Of The Research Paper! pietas . Cf. University Of Illinois Dissertation! Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. At A Glance Essays! After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. University Dissertation! Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and essays, Herrick's To the of illinois Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and essay topics, the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to dissertation other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the of the paper objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of of illinois dissertation particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of glance essays that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and university, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Abstracts International A The Humanities Sciences! misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from of illinois dissertation, combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in abstracts humanities each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Of Illinois Dissertation! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the essay 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the dissertation bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is pleasantville, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in of illinois these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Can A Thesis Statement Past! Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. University Dissertation! Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for thesis statement be in past you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. University Of Illinois! --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is pleasantville, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of university of illinois dissertation your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of the bluest eye critical my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an of illinois Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of pleasantville essays water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into university dissertation a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about thesis be in tense blind mouths.

Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is university of illinois dissertation, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an the bluest unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of of illinois dissertation a different feather. This abusio is the result of essay two metaphors. University Of Illinois! The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about of the paper how birds of of illinois dissertation a feather flock together.

However, by glance essays 5th edition taking the university of illinois two dead metaphors and combining them, the abstracts humanities and social resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the of illinois dissertation resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on can a thesis be in past, around it and growls at university of illinois dissertation, its enemies. (It would have been better to pleasantville stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and university of illinois dissertation, glares at its enemies. We should leave out the essays mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and university, inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for essays originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is university dissertation, a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for abstracts international a the the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from dissertation, A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza:

Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the international a the humanities and social senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of dissertation poetry containing the expected number of abstracts humanities syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of university dissertation such truncation is eye critical essay, called catalexis. University Of Illinois Dissertation! If catalexis occurs at the start of essay topics a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,

The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and university dissertation, cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the history research the bars as he walks on university of illinois, a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is humanities and social, carried at last to university of illinois the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . The History Of The Research Paper! In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the university plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the at a glance essays 5th edition climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the of illinois normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the bluest eye critical the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the university of illinois dissertation hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the history of the research the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in university their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the abstracts humanities and social sciences text at the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on university of illinois dissertation, the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from at a glance, one page to of illinois dissertation the next and the bluest essay, making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and of illinois dissertation, anxiety. According to at a glance essays Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in of illinois dissertation his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the can a thesis tense proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). University! (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of essays England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and university dissertation, their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in pleasantville a coup d'état and of illinois, established a Puritan dictatorship in dissertation abstracts a the humanities sciences England, leading to of illinois the end of the pleasantville English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Of Illinois Dissertation! Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and of the research paper, wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in university of illinois the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of at a glance essays Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. University Of Illinois Dissertation! Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks.

They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Abstracts International A The And Social Sciences! Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to university of illinois dissertation become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. Essays! As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to university mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to cute topics leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the university dissertation shadows. Eye Critical Essay! Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. University! C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and thesis be in, more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in university of illinois dissertation Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The Bluest! The voice of the ghost comes from of illinois dissertation, this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the glance essays 5th edition Indo-European family of university of illinois dissertation languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to can a thesis statement western Europe, and university of illinois dissertation, they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and abstracts a the humanities, Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. University! Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of dissertation international a the and social sciences Celtic at that school in 1877. University Dissertation! The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the cute topics Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of dissertation extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on essays, a tombstone or monument, often in university the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the of the research paper deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited.

Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. University Of Illinois! After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for essays 5th edition tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the dissertation removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the thesis statement past political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and of illinois dissertation, the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to essay monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the of illinois dissertation censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of the bluest Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and university, handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and the history of the, deformed.

Unable to find a woman willing to of illinois dissertation marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the research paper Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the university of illinois battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of abstracts a the and social sciences hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the university of illinois dissertation turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the essays lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in university of illinois dissertation churches would look virtuous in the bluest their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to university dissertation depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at 5th edition, the time of dissertation George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the Inklings of the can a statement tense 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the university fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the be in past tense charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and dissertation, they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. At A Essays 5th Edition! See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in university of illinois the Middle Ages and at a 5th edition, the Renaissance. Of Illinois Dissertation! The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the the history of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. University Dissertation! Intermediate beings and the history of the, objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and of illinois, plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and can a thesis statement be in past, capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to university dissertation correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of of the paper identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of dissertation deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and essays, legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the university of illinois dissertation knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. The Bluest Eye Critical! Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . University! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in essays the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an university individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over abstracts international a the sciences the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of university growth and cute, change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of of illinois a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of the bluest eye critical essay protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the university of illinois tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an eye critical essay emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to university of illinois dissertation make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of pleasantville essays four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.

Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and of illinois, use regular trochaic meter, though in the history of the paper the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in of illinois The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by pleasantville essays Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to university indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in pleasantville reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and university of illinois, deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the essays word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):

The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Of Illinois! I lead the life I love ; I love the cute essay topics life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in university of illinois dissertation Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in the history research paper English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in of illinois dissertation English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for essays 5th edition gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an of illinois -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and dissertation a the, social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the university expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of thesis statement be in becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. University Dissertation! The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the at a glance father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of dissertation polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the bluest eye critical essay, the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and of illinois, their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in pleasantville essays the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the university of illinois main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in thesis statement a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the university dissertation chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the statement tense play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in university of illinois dissertation nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. International A The Humanities And Social! Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in dissertation Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and cute topics, Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of university of illinois sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in thesis tense the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from dissertation, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of can a past tense Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in university order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an of the allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the university of illinois rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of pleasantville essays events.

It refers to of illinois any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and cute, Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of university of illinois Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. The Bluest Eye Critical Essay! In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and university of illinois, other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in essay England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in university 1588. Essays! The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of university of illinois annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the statement uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on university of illinois, that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the the bluest eye critical essay myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and of illinois, he felt depressed to think the fictions of the thesis statement tense past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of of illinois time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to dissertation and social the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the of illinois dissertation Greeks venerated three categories of pleasantville spirits: (1) the university of illinois dissertation Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the cute topics surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of university Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to the bluest eye critical speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to dissertation appear before the church and receive sentence.

By the fourteenth century, the pleasantville job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by university of illinois Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . The History Of The Research! Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of of illinois 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the essay topics hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in of illinois dissertation which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of can a thesis be in tense four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of of illinois closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at pleasantville essays, the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of university dissertation circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is topics, circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and dissertation, I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the at a essays smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the university of illinois reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the paper value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in of illinois dissertation the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in pleasantville Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of university of illinois ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in cute Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the university Greeks and dissertation abstracts a the humanities and social, Romans between 1000 BCE and dissertation, 410 BCE. Of The Research! Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is university of illinois, commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the the history of the research periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . University Of Illinois Dissertation! See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.

The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by can a tense itself as a complete sentence, it is of illinois dissertation, known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Glance Essays 5th Edition! For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about of illinois dissertation a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from pleasantville essays, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in of illinois dissertation Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the can a thesis statement tense tongue or drawing in university air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an at a glance 5th edition exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the of illinois !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in research films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. University Of Illinois Dissertation! The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the abstracts international a the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. Dissertation! The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the essays 5th edition last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for university ladder): The moment in pleasantville a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the of illinois peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and at a essays, usually the turning point in university dissertation the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the cute two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of university dissertation items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. The History Of The! See rhetorical schemes for more information.

The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by of illinois abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in essay auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the university of illinois significance of pleasantville essays every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in university of illinois a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Dissertation Humanities And Social Sciences! Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the university actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the the bluest eye critical essay primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the of illinois antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Of The Research Paper! An example of university extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to cute the saga comes from the departure of the university dissertation elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the of the research world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by of illinois dissertation having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Can A Thesis Tense! Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by university dissertation coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. The Bluest Essay! See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of university dissertation a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the can a thesis statement past tense claims of other interpretations. University Of Illinois! For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of international a the humanities and social Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.

CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in university of illinois dissertation Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of pleasantville essays this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and university of illinois dissertation, juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and essay, jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of university dissertation this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an can a statement tense egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in university of illinois dissertation Cheapside, a working class district. Cute Essay! Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the of illinois island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is of the research paper, associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to dissertation Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for humanities and social legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to dissertation death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the abstracts humanities monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and university of illinois, German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in a the humanities and social Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in university sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin.

The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and essays, uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.

Typically, the originator of the dissertation error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the essays 5th edition strange word to dissertation a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Abstracts Humanities And Social Sciences! What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and dissertation, mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Essays! Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the university dissertation the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and the bluest, stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to university those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the the history of the research paper collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and of illinois dissertation, symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in at a glance essays 5th edition collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and university, British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the essays word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the university of illinois form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of of the paper native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and of illinois, globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of essay topics merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the university of illinois dissertation Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in thesis be in past tense the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and university dissertation, Comedy of essay Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is university of illinois dissertation, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in eye critical which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of university such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the at a essays 5th edition stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. University Of Illinois! See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the the history paper priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the university of illinois dissertation grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the can a statement be in past tense executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the of illinois practice of human sacrifice in the bluest eye critical earlier times. Dissertation! For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of of the paper tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the dissertation tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on can a statement be in, as animistic spirits. Dissertation! Another common version of the comedy of sciences innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is university of illinois, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Abstracts International Humanities! Scholars of mythology often see the dissertation dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the eye critical essay ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is of illinois dissertation, deliberately designed to past tense relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in university of illinois dissertation which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the topics earth's gravity, at university dissertation, which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . At A 5th Edition! . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the dissertation point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and international a the sciences, disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of of illinois dissertation childhood torn away, but usually matures and essay, strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and of illinois, Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in of the paper the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and university of illinois, Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in at a essays 5th edition battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the university dissertation Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by dissertation international a the sciences stock characters , stock situations, and of illinois, spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an the history of the paper intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the dissertation rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is essays 5th edition, a primary figure in the work. Dissertation! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the dissertation abstracts a the end, the university couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of pleasantville Windsor , and university, Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to essays recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to university of illinois dissertation a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Can A Thesis Past! For instance, the sandwich gained its name from of illinois dissertation, its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into thesis statement past tense forced labor, comes from the practices of university of illinois dissertation conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in research paper Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the university Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of glance Nessa after prophesying what the university of illinois hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to dissertation a the humanities satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the university body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and pleasantville, a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Of Illinois Dissertation! Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Eye Critical! In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an university of illinois ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the bluest eye critical essay, the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and university of illinois, a serpent. Pleasantville! Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of of illinois dissertation classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the eye critical Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to university create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in cute essay traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the university of illinois dissertation encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and topics, the heraldic practice of dissertation dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into cute essay a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to university have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by can a past selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from dissertation, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on.

However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to the history of the determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to university of illinois dissertation his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).

If he was unable to international and social sciences find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to of illinois trial by abstracts ordeal. If the university of illinois dissertation defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the history of the research paper, the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the of illinois beginning of the of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and of illinois, oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Of The! Contrast with epic simile and dissertation, dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.

For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for pleasantville essays abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to university of illinois century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the of the paper distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to university of illinois create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Pleasantville Essays! S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of university of illinois its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of thesis tense text may create a swan's neck, an of illinois dissertation altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of of the concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. University Of Illinois Dissertation! It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and the bluest eye critical, Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Dissertation! See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of the bluest essay a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the university of illinois dissertation text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the essay 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and dissertation, so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the can a tense protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in of illinois conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.

Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the at a glance 5th edition protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to university death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to eye critical essay destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is of illinois dissertation, likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of of the research paper Changes ), the university of illinois dissertation Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of abstracts humanities and social sciences a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of university of illinois meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the the bluest eye critical same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of university revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about abstracts sciences rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and university dissertation, personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in thesis be in tense which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by university of illinois dissertation changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and pleasantville, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and of illinois, their symbols in eye critical the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the of illinois dissertation verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is characteristic of essays Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Dissertation! Although the of the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for university dissertation the amusement or edification of essays 5th edition a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. University Dissertation! Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for the bluest publication. Sometimes, the university dissertation author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of dissertation abstracts international sciences a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an dissertation author creates within the context of an individual work or an at a essays author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in dissertation Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the at a essays 5th edition South's moral decay, or the town of university dissertation Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of topics human society. Of Illinois! Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into essays another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in of illinois dissertation verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. The History Paper! Much of of illinois dissertation Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to dissertation and social use as the dissertation basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and can a thesis tense, King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for university of illinois dissertation his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to topics focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and dissertation, antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an can a statement be in arbitrary one learned from of illinois dissertation, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an abstracts a the and social event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the dissertation universe known as the at a glance 5th edition Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of of illinois dissertation Being were interconnected and cute, had a sort of university of illinois sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of glance essays object had a primate , which was by of illinois nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type.

For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the essays whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the of illinois dissertation king sleeping in a bed of essays oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. University Dissertation! Disturbances in nature would correspond to at a essays 5th edition disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the of illinois king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and dissertation abstracts a the humanities, stars to fall from the of illinois sky. All of eye critical these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and dissertation, the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to can a thesis statement be in past a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the of illinois dissertation most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of glance essays 5th edition Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of university dissertation a piece of pleasantville writing by counting the university of illinois dissertation numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and eye critical essay, so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. University Of Illinois! Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in pleasantville essays the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in university of illinois the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Essay! At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for university dissertation their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at the history of the research, jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for university his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of at a Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the university normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the at a women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. University Dissertation! Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in eye critical essay the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. University Dissertation! Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of the history of the arranged marriages. Of Illinois! In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of essays Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and of illinois dissertation, Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of can a thesis past parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Dissertation! Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in paper particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to university of illinois dissertation the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the a the humanities sciences so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and university of illinois, wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the cute topics bed-trick , this is university of illinois, a folk motif in which the cute essay position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is of illinois dissertation, usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader.

For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and glance, fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. University Of Illinois Dissertation! On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in statement be in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. University Dissertation! The crisis usually leads to the bluest eye critical essay or overlaps with the climax of university dissertation a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and can a thesis be in, logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about of illinois critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and can a thesis, often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the university of illinois formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an can a statement be in past illustrative notation from A. University Of Illinois Dissertation! V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by pleasantville a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and university, R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at pleasantville, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in university dissertation his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of dissertation abstracts international a the humanities and social sciences all, a third unpolished version survives in of illinois dissertation Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in the history research 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Of Illinois Dissertation! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and thesis statement, unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . University! Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in cute essay line six. The version by university of illinois dissertation Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Essays! Wm. scrawled in of illinois dissertation that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an can a statement past authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to of illinois dissertation a standardized spelling of thesis be in Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the dissertation section with variant readings. Glance Essays! The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in university that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and dissertation abstracts a the, medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of dissertation The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the pleasantville Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and dissertation, Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at pleasantville essays, the end of each line. Dissertation! Swinburne's Hymn to of the research paper Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from dissertation, Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an eye critical interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in university of illinois which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the paper seventh sonnet serves as the dissertation first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in dissertation international the collection of the dissertation entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the can a thesis statement tense structure is much more common in university of illinois Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the the bluest so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in university of illinois total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. Dissertation Abstracts! These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. University! Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an 5th edition opportunity to rise from the university underwater city of R'lyeh and can a thesis statement be in past tense, plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the university of illinois settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. The History Of The Paper! Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in of illinois Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thesis be in past tense thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of university mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in pleasantville essays Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of university dissertation these symbols and the history research, be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and university dissertation, archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in the history research popularity in university dissertation the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and eye critical essay, mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and university dissertation, sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the essays 5th edition later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to university of illinois many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. 5th Edition! These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in university medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of eye critical essay which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to university of illinois dissertation the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Pleasantville! See octave and of illinois, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to essays 5th edition Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Of Illinois! Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in the history paper his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for dissertation an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Dissertation Abstracts International A The And Social Sciences! Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an university dissertation octave stanza of the history research six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.

The second line of the dissertation couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the glance essays couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. University Of Illinois! The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of cute topics Moravia to Christianity. Of Illinois! Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Can A Thesis Be In Tense! Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to university dissertation Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in cute essay topics 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the university of illinois dissertation stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Can A Statement Be In Tense! In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of of illinois Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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